BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE HISTORY OF PARS
|Iran map ,2500 years ago|
(The southern province of Iran from which the world-famous name of Persia is derived.)
Few are the countries possessed by such historic and world-famous fame as Fars or Pars.
The name of this ancient country and its brave and generous people, who brought two great empires, the Achaemenians and the Sassanians, are abundant in the ancient records and writings of the ninth century Christians and Christians during the centuries of the Christian era Ear
The name Pars has earned a world record as all European races have referred to Iran as Persia and the Iranian people and the language as Persians.
The founding of the Persian state, and the great and astonishing transformation which arose in the ancient civilized East from a most important chapter in the history of the world. This state brought many of the former leading empires under its influence and became their only and most appropriate successor.
Under the clear and azure skies of the Fars, in the shelter of these fine mountains, and in these green and expansive plains, Cyrus and Darius, two outstanding and distinguished Persian figures, two splendid members of the Achaean family, came into being Areas of the world; Tossed the Assyrian and Babylonian tyrants; An end to the reign of the Pharaohs and went beyond the center and the west of Asia, penetrated into the heart of Greece.
The Sassanian Ardeshir and Shapour, worthy successors of the Achaean emperors, transformed their powerful empire of the East, the climate, the geographical position, the aboriginal abilities and the courage, the arrogance of the race, and the excellent education that this country instilled in their sons The great western empire of Rome. This extended in the west to Armenia and Georgia, in the north to the Caucasus and Káshghar; And in the east of Kábul and Sind, and an important part of Kushán, as far as the city of Pesháwar.
The clear history, the transformation of the ancient countries of the East, the creation of a period of world peace after the internal struggle of the peoples, which began several thousand years and took shape in this region.
A knowledge of the history of the countries and the monuments which have remained to them from the past, and the impact they have had on the development of history and the world of art, are essential to those affected. Above all, this is the case with the city and Shiráz region, in the discussion, which is the center of the most famous province of Iran, Fars, and is of world renown. Here not only noble kings ruled, but also famous writers such as Sa'adi and Háfez, and well-known scholars and scholars, painters and craftsmen, who were later referred to in this book. They were kings of literature and science.
Persia and Persian, Shiráz and its inhabitants can also be proud of their brilliant past and their famous men of action and letters.
Before we begin discussing the historical remains of Shiráz and its present state, it is advisable to draw the attention of the reader and give a brief explanation of the Persian race and the ancient inhabitants of this country.
The Persians were a group of Aryans who came to the Fars through the east of Iran and made this region their home through Sistán and Kermán. The Aryans (arya = nobel) were a part of the Indo-Iranian race, which was inhabited by population increase, lack of food, territorial constriction, excessive cold or the occurrence of other political and natural causes that are not known to us Middle of the second millennium before Christ. A group entered through the Hindu Kush series into the Sind and Punjab valleys and became forefathers of the Indians; Another group, which lived in the fertile valleys of the Oxus and the Jaxartes, came south-westward to the Iranian high plateau and gradually occupied Iran and gave it its name.
This group of Aryans did not all go on a route and did not settle in a center, but a group remained in Khorassan in the north-west, which became known as Parthian. Another group went along the shores of the Caspian Sea to the west and Azarbaijan and the slopes of the Alburz Mountain into the neighborhood of the Caucasus and became known as Medes. A third group across the east and Kermán came south. These were the Persians. They called their place of settlement and called it Pars. From this time on until now the name given to this region, then, has insisted. Persia, the term commonly used in European countries is taken from the Fars and Parsa, which transcended in Greek as Persia, the Arabic of the Fars.
Before arriving in Pars from the group of the Aryan race as mentioned above, the original in the inhabitants of this country consisted of an indigenous people of black race, rude, coarse and ugly hill. Traces of their art have often been found in prehistoric hills that contain fine tanned pottery and metal, and as a result of the recent arrivals in Tehran and the Persepolis and Pars museums.
The arrested group of the Aryans, powerful, intelligent, and well-equipped, and a white and handsome nation, were naturally conscious of their superiority in their first contact with the coarse and ugly indigenous black race, and after all they were able to do so after many conflicts To subdue them, so the uninvited guests became the owners of the house. Of the struggles and disputes between the invaders and the defenders, no reliable information is available since no inscriptions or carvings have been found from which the situation could be judged, but this can ensure that, after a long period of the conflict, the invaders finally In conflict, goods were victorious and settled down in Pars and made them home.
The newcomers first put the indigenous population on hard tasks and employed them in agriculture, in buildings, pasture cattle and in personal service, but later, when they had become better acquainted and did not anticipate an uprising, a closer contact became possible Certain rights, and a blessing took plac
The indigenous peoples and the ancient inhabitants of the Iranian plateau are referred to in the legends and ancient stories as "div" from which the word "devil" is derived, for the Aryans who worshiped Ahuramazda called those who believed in the nonareers , "Div yasna", that is, revered by the Div, the non-Aryan god.
Scholars believe that Aryans arrived on the Iranian plateau 1500 to 1400 years before Christ. One of its reasons is the discovery in Boghazkuy in Kleinasien in 1907 of a baked clay tablet, on which an oath was inscribed in the name of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Nasatya, four of the gods in which the ancient Aryans believed before they separated into groups . This seems to have been a contract for the year 1350 B. C. between two peoples, the Hittites and Mitanni.There are the same four gods mentioned in the Rigveda as they are worshiped by the Indian Aryans, and since the time of the composition of the Veda, the sacred book of the Indians, is not laid before the fourteenth century BC Date is not very different from that when the separation and spread of two Aryan groups that have entered India and the one that came to the Iranian high level took place. However, after this date, the Aryans became worshipers of a god, whose name they became Ahuramazda.
|Zoroastrian Fire Temple-Yazd|
Although so far no scientific discoveries have been made in various parts of the Fars, of which the earliest traces of the arts and culture of this historical country could be conclusively attested, yet it is certain that in very distant prehistoric people humans lived at that time and had their share The culture and civilization of that time.
Only in the Marvdasht level in recent years have been some light excavations by the American Oriental Institute, and continued the Archæological Institute of Persepolis. Remnants of the fifth, fourth and third millennium before Christ were discovered that correspond in the period with those in other prehistoric hills on the Iranian plateau, like Ja'afarábád near Shúsh, or Siálak near káshán.
Here one must not fail to point out that civilization, which is designated by the remains discovered, should not be regarded as the earliest civilization of the population of that district. Because it is certain that the construction of houses and the production of tools, equipment and pottery vessels for life after thousands of years of hiking in deserts and lives in tents took place and the beginning of the discovery of remains does not show the beginning of the civilization of a people anywhere.
At present, it still lives in various parts of Fars' migratory birds, who spend their days in the deserts, mountains and tens of thousands, even though they live in a century when civilization has reached its highest and highest level Of the conveniences and industrial products of modern life. Accordingly, the discovery of remains from the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the plains of the Fars is no proof that before this time man lived in the conditions of savagery and barbarism, without art and civilization.
It was only from the time when houses were built, and groups and communities gathered together, that the remains of their lives remained where they were, buried among the bodies of their dead under the earth, and brought to light by excavations. By observing the designs and the type of pottery and the depth of the soil above the found objects, the date can be estimated.
Before the discovery and translation of the cuneiform tablets in the treasury of Persepolis, the earliest information that Persian historians had given after the rise of Islam in their writings on the date and the antiquity of Shiráz had been enlarged in 74. AH (693 AD) By Muhammad Ebn Yusef Saqafi, the brother of Hajjá, was an agent in Fars to Abdulmalek Ebn Marvá, the Califf, and made the seat and center of the governors of the day. Most historians who have made statements about Fars and Shiráz, such as Muqaddasi, Ebn ulBalkhi, Sheikh Sa'id Abi ulkhair, the author of the Mujmal uttavárikh v'ulqassas (the summary of histories and fables), Hamdullah Mustaufi, and more recently, The Author of Farsnameh, Háji Mirza Hassan Fasáí and the writer of Ásár-i-'Ajam the monuments of Persia Fursat udDowleh Shirázi, have given the same information.
But after the clay tablets of Persepolis, which had written the cuneiform, had been read and deciphered in the last few years by the administrator of Elamite, Professor George Cameron, of the University of Chicago, and observed the word Shirzziish on one or two The tablets, all doubts and hesitations were removed, and it was certain that the date of Shiráz was far earlier than assumed and assigned. The result of these investigations and investigations and also the excavations of the French oriental mission in Qasr-i-Abu'lNasr east of Shiráz and the discovery of several articles made it clear that the beautiful city of Shiráz, where Sa 'Adi and Háfez were cultivated, was also From the time of the Achaemenian monarchs, and had seen the great time in which the emperors of this dynasty and also the Sassan line ruled. And perhaps, if it could speak, it would reveal many secrets and reveal the wealth of historical memories hidden in her bosom, of which a hundredth part of history was not able to record.
The cuneiform inscriptions on clay tablets, in which the name Shiráz is to be seen, consist of a report on the wages of the workers who were commissioned by the king for the construction works in Shiráz and which were paid out of state resources.
To Vahush, the treasurer of Parsa, Artataxma speaks: "Karsha, Shekels, and a quarter shekels, silver, the equivalent of half wages as wages for laborers, for whom Bakurada is the chief man in Shiráz, the salary of the month Samiamantash of the 19th century. Year. 12 men, each, per month, 3 shekels and three quarters of the same that they are to receive. 11 boys, every 134 shekels and one eighth of a shekels to be received. 13 boys, each a shekel and a quarter to receive. 15 boys, each one half and one eighth of a shekels whom they are to receive. They shall receive women, two shekels, and a half shekels. 12 girls, each a shekel, three quarters, and an eighth of a shekel whom they are to receive. 18 girls, a shekels and a quarter of a shekels to be given. 20 girls, each one half and one eighth of a shekels, silver to receive.
The month of Samiamantash was the winter month, February 6 to March 7. The nineteenth year of Xerxes was 466 B. C.
To Ratininda the treasurers say, Artataxma: 37 karsha, Ihe shekels, and a quarter of a shek, give them as a reward for workers for whom Bakurada is the chief man in Shiráz. It equals half of the wages. Your reward for the month Thuravahara of the 20th year. 12 men, one month 3 shekels and 3 quarters each. 11 boys, each 2 shekels and a half shekels. 11 boys, each 1 shekels and 3 quarters and one eighth. 13 boys, each, 1 shekels and a fourth. 15 boys each, half a shekel and an eighth
The month of Thuravahara was the spring month corresponding to May 5 to June 3.
Further evidence that the date of Shiráz goes back to the Achæmenian period or beyond id provided by the deep-cut well on the sa’adi hill, known as the well of the Fahandez Fort, or the well of the Bandar Fort. This resembles the wells which the Achæmenians cut in soild rock, one at Persepolis, and three others at the end of Mount Rahmat beside the main road from Shiráz to Teheran, opposite the Aliábád spring. This well is 102 meters deep, and its dimensions are four meters by three. These five wells, and other such wells, which perhaps exist on other hills in Fars, but are still hidden from view, were all cut in the rock with one end in view, and if their date is not prior to the Achæmenians, it is certainly contemporary.
Thus, the city of Shiráz existed in the Achæmenians period, but not in the size and meaning it later acquired in the Islamic period and after the fall of the city of Estakhr. It belonged to a period whose history is still hidden from us, and which is older than we have assumed from the monuments and cuneiform notes which have been discovered. It is hoped that future excavations and investigations will make its historical position clearer.
The French Archaeological Mission of Qasr-i-Abu Nasr, during 1933 and 1934 and several months that it carried out excavations in the ruins, found a series of coins, vessels and objects belonging to the Seleucian, Parthian and Sassanid periods in these Periods. The result of the excavations in Qasr-i-Abu Nasr proved
|The Tomb of Cyrus the Great|
that the structure belonged to Sassanian or the end of the Parthian period. Among the articles found were certain poetry, which read the name of Ardeshir Khureh and the name of a city that was similar to that of Shiráz. In addition, the carvings will be made on the rock at Barm-i-Delak and Dasht-i-Khezr, the Sassanid times, to which reference will later be made, suggesting the existence of a city and populated center in that plane.
The origin and condition of each district are determined by the remains discovered there. From the scientific excavations in various parts of the Iranian plateau, it is clear that the history of some parts such as Siyálek in Kashan or Ja'afarabad in the Shush or Marvdasht plain goes back 7000 years, but no archaeological investigation has been undertaken The Shiráz Plain was undertaken, To determine how many thousand years before Christ it was inhabited. It is to be hoped that one day the curtain may be lifted, for excavations have shown that large cities and old towns have been built on sites for a long time, the residence of tribes and peoples such as Shush, Pasargadé, and Persepolis Thousands of years.