|The Khwarazm oasis on a satellite image from 2009|
Khwarezm / kwɛrəzəm / or Chorasmia / kəræzmiə / (Persian: خوارزم) is a large oasis region on the river delta Amu Darya in western Central Asia, bordering the Aral Sea to the north, the Kyzylkum desert to the east And in the west the Ustyurt plateau. It was the center of (native) Khwarezmian civilization and a number of kingdoms, whose main cities were Kath, Gurganj (the modern Köneürgenç) and from the 16th century Khiva. Today Khwarezm belongs partly to Uzbekistan, partly to Kazakhstan and partly to Turkmenistan.
Names and etymology
Khwarezm was also known as Chorasmia, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Choresm, Khorasam, Harezm, Horezm and Chorezm.
In Avestisch, the name is Xvairizem, in the ancient Persian Huwarazmish, in the modern Persian خوارزم, in Arabic خوارزم Khwarizm, in Old Chinese * qʰaljɯʔmriɡ (似 密 密), modern Chinese Huālázǐmó (花剌子模), in Kazakh Хорезм, in the Uzbek Xorazm, in Turkish Harezm, in the Greek Χορασμία and Χορασίμα, of Herodot in Turkmen Horezm.
The Arabic geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi wrote in his Mu'ǧam al-buldan that the name was a link (in Persian) from khwar (خوار) and razm (رزم), referring to the abundance of boiled fish as the chief diet of the peoples From this area.
CE Bosworth, however, believes that the Persian name consists of (خور), which means "the sun" and (زم) means "earth" and denotes "the land from which the sun rises", although the same etymology is also given to Khurasan Is. Another view is that the Iranian link for "lowland" stands for kh (w) ar "low" and zam "earth, land". Khwarezm is indeed the lowest region in Central Asia (except for the Caspian Sea in the west), on the delta of Amu Darya on the southern bank of the Aral Sea. Various forms of khwar / khar / khor / hor are also commonly used in the Persian Gulf to stand for watt, marsh, or tidal bay locations (eg Khor-Abdallah, Horal-Azim, Hor al-Himar, etc.). ) "
The name also appears in Achaemenid inscriptions as Huvarazmish, which is declared to be part of the Persian Empire.
The early scholars believed me to be Khwarezm, which means ancient Avestic texts as Airyanem Vaejah ("Ariyaneh Waeje", later Middle Persian Iran vij). These sources argue that ancient Urgench, which was the capital of ancient Khwarezm for many years, was indeed Ourva, the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. However, Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Airyanem Vaejah was located in today's Afghanistan, whose northern territories were part of the ancient Khwarezm and Greater Khorasan. Others, however, disagree. University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believes Khwarezm, the "most likely locale" according to the original home of the Avestan people, and Dehkhoda Khwarezm "مهد قوم یریا" ("the cradle of the Aryan tribe"),
|Khwarazmian Empire map|
Like Soghdiana, Khwarzem was an expansion of the BMAC culture during the Bronze Age, which later merged with Indo-Iranians during their migrations around 1000 BC. Early states of the Iron Age emerged from this cultural exchange. List of successive cultures in the Khwarzem region 3000-500 BC:
• Keltiminar Culture c. 3000 BC
• Suyargan Culture c 2000 BC
• Tazabag’yab Culture c. 1500 BC
• Amirabad Culture c 1000 BC
• Saka c. 500 BC
During the last Saka phase there were about 400 settlements in Khwararzem. Regulated by the native Afighid dynasty. It was at this time that Khwarzem's historical record with the Acheminide extension (see also: Kyuzeli-gyr).
An Eastern Iranian language, known as the Khwarezmian language, was spoken in Khwarezm right (the Lower Amu Darya region) until soon after the Mongol invasion, when it was replaced by Turkish languages. It was closely related to Sogdian. Unlike the astronomical terms used by the native Iranian Chorasmian spokesman Biruni, our other sources of Khwarezmian include the Arabic-Persian Khwarezmian dictionary of Zamakhshari and some of the texts using Khwarezmian terms to explain certain legal concepts.
In the 12th century, the Khwarezmid empire was founded, which ruled over all Persia under the Shah al-Dīn Muhammad II (1200-1220) in the early 13th century. In 1141, Yelü Dashi won the battle of Qatwan commanded against a Seljuk army of Sanjar, as a result, Khwarezm became a vassal of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. From 1218 to 1220, Genghis Khan and his Mongols started the invasion of Central Asia, destroying the Kara Khitan Khanat and the Khwarezmid Empire, including the magnificent capital of the latter, Gurganj.
"The Korasmine (ie, Khwarezmid), a violent uncivilized race driven out of their homes, spread with the fire and the sword in search of a retreat over the South Asian region to Egypt, whose Sultan was not able, The swarm which had thrown his longing eyes upon the fertile valleys of the Nile ... sent ambassadors to Barbaquan, their leader, and invited them to settle down in Palestine and were killed on the walls of Jerusalem ... they tore Every trace of the Christian faith ... "
"The sultans of Syria drew the Christians before this savage horde for their neighbors; even the Sultan of Egypt regretted the aid which he had given to such barbaric enemies, and united with those of Emissa and Damascus to root them out of the land Korasmine amounted to twenty thousand men and was unable to resist the determined enmity ... The Sultans thwarted them in several commitments, and the peasantry rose in masses to take revenge on them, no grace showed them in the defeat Barbaquan Was killed.
Khwarezm in Persian literature
Khwarezm and her cities appear in Persian literature in abundance, in both prose and poetry. Dehkhoda for example defines the name Bukhara itself as "full of knowledge", referring to the fact that in antiquity, Bukhara was a scientific and scholarship powerhouse. Rumi verifies this when he praises the city as such:
Other examples illustrate the eminent status of Khwarezmid and Transoxianian cities in Persian literature in the past 1500 years:
عالم جانها بر او هست مقرر چنانک
"The world of hearts is under his power in the same manner that
دولت خوارزمشاه داد جهان را قرار
The Khwarazmshahs have brought peace to the world."
یکی پر طمع پیش خوارزمشاه
"A greedy one went to Khwarezm-shah"
شنیدم که شد بامدادی پگاه
"early one morning, so I have heard
|Alal al-Din Khwarazm-Shah crossing the rapid Indus|
Yaqut al-Hamawi, who visited Khwarezm and its capital in 1219, wrote: "I have never seen a city more wealthy and beautiful than Gurganj". The city, however, was destroyed during several invasions, in particular when the Mongol army broke the dams of the Amu Darya which flooded the city. He reports that for every Mongol soldier, four inhabitants of Gurganj were killed. Najmeddin Kubra, the great Sufi master, was among the casualties. The Mongol army that devastated Gurganj was estimated to have been near 80,000 soldiers. The verse below refers to an early previous calamity that fell upon the region:
آخر ای خاک خراسان داد یزدانت نجات
"Oh land of Khorasan! God has saved you,
از بلای غیرت خاک ره گرگانج و کات
from the disaster that befell the land of Gurganj and Kath
---Divan of Anvari
Nevertheless the beauty and fame of Bukhara and Samarqand are well known in Persian literature. The following famous cosmopolitan ode perhaps best provides a notable example of this:
اگر آن ترک شیرازی به دست آرد دل ما را
"If that Shirazi Turk can win my heart,
به خال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخارا را
I would sell even the jewel cities of Samarqand and Bukhara for the Indian mole on her cheek."
Legend has it that Tamerlane sent for Hafiz regarding this verse and asked angrily: "Are you he who was so bold as to offer my two great cities Samarkand and Bukhara for the mole on thy mistress's cheek?" Hafiz then replied, "Yes, sire, and it is by such acts of generosity that I have brought myself to such a state of destitution that I have now to solicit your bounty." Tamerlane is written to have been so pleased at his ready wit that he dismissed the poet with a handsome present.
Notables of Khwarezm
The following either hail from Khwarezm, or lived and are buried there:
• Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, outstanding scholar
• Ma'mun II., Khwarezm Shah and founder of an academy
• Najm al-Din Kubra, Sufi mystic
• Rashid al-Din Vatvat, panegyrist and epistolographer
• Tura Beg Khanum, wife of Kutlug Temur
• Fakhr al-Din Razi
• Ala al-Din Atsiz, Khwarezm Shah
• Ala al-Din Tekish, Khwarezm Shah
• Ala al-Din Muhammad, Khwarezm Shah
• Jalal ad-Din Menguberdi, Khwarezm Shah
• Abu l-Hasan Sa'eedeh ibn Sa'deh, commentary writer on the writings of Sibawayh.
• Abaaq al-Khwarazmi
• Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, mathematician (for whom the term algorithm is named.)
• Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi, 10th century encyclopedist who wrote Mafatih al-'Ulum (“Key to the Sciences”).
• Abu Bakr al-Khwarizmi, scholar
• Zamakhshari, scholar
• Qutb al-zaman Muhammad ibn Abu-Tahir Marvazi, philosopher
• Al-Marwazi, astronomer
• Mahmud Yalavach, ambassador and governor of Mavaraunnahr (1224–1238)
• Abu l-Ghazi Bahadur, Khan and historian
• Ras Tarkhan, a mercenary leader of the Khazars
• Agakhi, poet and historian
• Shermuhammad Munis, poet and historian