Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (Persian: خواجه شمسالدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his nom de plume Hāfez (حافظ; additionally Hāfiz; 1325/26–1389/90), was a Persian writer. His gathered works are viewed as a zenith of Persian writing and are to be found in the homes of the vast majority in Iran and Afghanistan, who take in his sonnets by heart and utilize them as precepts and expressions right up 'til today. His life and sonnets have been the subject of much investigation, discourse, and understanding, impacting post-fourteenth century Persian composition more than whatever another creator.
Subjects of his ghazals are the darling, confidence, and uncovering bad faith. His impact in the lives of Farsi speakers can be found in "Hafez readings" (fāl-e hāfez, Persian: فال حافظ) and the regular utilization of his sonnets in Persian customary music, visual craftsmanship, and Persian calligraphy. His tomb is gone to regularly. Adjustments, impersonations, and interpretations of Hafez' ballads exist in every significant dialect.
|Hafez-Goethe monument in Weimar, Germany|
Hafez was conceived in Shiraz, Iran. His folks were from Kazeroon (Fars Province). Regardless of his significant impact on Persian life and culture and his persisting prevalence and impact, few points of interest of his life are known. Records of his initial life depend upon customary accounts. Early tazkiras (anecdotal representations) specifying Hafez are for the most part thought to be questionable. The introduction of his Divān, in which his initial life is talked about, was composed by an obscure contemporary of Hafez whose name may have been Moḥammad Golandām. Two of the most profoundly respected present day releases of Hafez's Divān are gathered by Moḥammad Qazvini and Qāsem Ḡani (495 ghazals) and by Parviz Natil Khanlari (486 ghazals).
Current researchers by and large concur that Hafez was conceived either in 1315 or 1317; after a record by Jami 1390 is viewed as the year in which he kicked the bucket. Hafez was upheld by support from a few progressive neighborhood administrations: Shah Abu Ishaq, who came to control while Hafez was in his teenagers; Timur toward the finish of his life; and even the strict ruler Shah Mubariz ud-Din Muhammad (Mubariz Muzaffar). Despite the fact that his work prospered most under the twenty-seven year rule of Jalal ud-Din Shah Shuja (Shah Shuja), it is asserted Hāfez quickly dropped out of support with Shah Shuja for taunting second rate artists (Shah Shuja composed verse himself and may have thought about the remarks literally), constraining Hāfez to escape from Shiraz to Isfahan and Yazd, albeit no chronicled confirmation of this is accessible. His tomb, Hāfezieh, is situated in the Musalla Gardens of Shiraz.
Numerous semi-wonderful legendary stories were woven around Hāfez after his passing. It is said that by tuning into his dad's recitations, Hāfez had achieved the errand of taking in the Qur'an by heart at an early age (that is in truth the importance of the word Hafez). In the meantime, Hāfez is said to have known by heart the works of Rumi (Jalal advertisement Din Muhammad Balkhi), Saadi, Farid ud-Din and Nizami.
As indicated by one convention, before meeting his supporter, Hajji Zayn al-Attar, Hāfez had been working in a pastry shop, conveying bread to an affluent quarter of the town. There, he initially observed Shakh-e Nabat, a lady of extraordinary excellence, to whom some of his lyrics are tended to. Violated by her excellence, yet realizing that his affection for her would not be compensated, he supposedly held his first spiritualist vigil in his yearning to understand this union. Amid this, he experienced a being of outperforming magnificence who recognized himself as a blessed messenger, and his further endeavors at Union wound up noticeably spiritualist; a quest for otherworldly union with the awesome. A Western parallel is that of Dante and Beatrice.
At age 60, he is said to have started a Chilla-nashini, a 40-day-and-night vigil by sitting around which he had drawn for himself. On the 40th day, he at the end of the day met with Zayn al-Attar on what is known to be their fortieth commemoration and was offered a measure of wine. It was there where he is said to have achieved "Infinite Consciousness". Hāfez indications at this scene in one of his verses in which he encourages the peruser to accomplish "clearness of wine" by giving it "a chance to sit for 40 days".
In spite of the fact that Hafez never gone out of Shiraz, in one story Tamerlane (Timur) indignantly summoned Hāfez to represent one of his verses:
In the event that the Shirazi Turk would take my heart close by
I would dispatch Samarkand and Bukhārā for her dark mole.
Samarkand was Timur's capital and Bokhara was his kingdom's finest city. "With the blows of my glossy sword," Timur grumbled, "I have enslaved the vast majority of the tenable globe... to adorn Samarkand and Bokhara, the seats of my administration; and you would offer them for the dark mole of some young lady in Shiraz!" Hāfez, so the story goes, bowed profoundly and answered, "Tsk-tsk, O Prince, it is this extravagance which is the reason for the hopelessness in which you discover me". So amazed and satisfied was Timur with this reaction that he rejected Hafez with nice looking blessings.
Works and influence
Hafez was acclaimed all through the Islamic world amid his lifetime, with other Persian writers emulating his work, and offers of support from Baghdad to India. Today, he is the most mainstream writer in Iran. Libraries in numerous different countries other than Iran, for example, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia contain his Diwan.
Significantly later, the work of Hāfez would leave a blemish on such Western authors as Thoreau, Goethe, and Ralph Waldo Emerson—the last alluding to him as "a writer's artist." His work was first converted into English in 1771 by William Jones.
There is no authoritative form of his gathered works (or Dīvān); releases fluctuate from 573 to 994 ballads. In Iran and Afghanistan, his gathered works have come to be utilized as a guide to prevalent divination. Just since the 1940s has a managed academic endeavor - by Mas'ud Farzad, Qasim Ghani and others in Iran - been made to validate his work, and evacuate mistakes presented by later copyists and edits. Be that as it may, the dependability of such work has been addressed, and in the expressions of Hāfez researcher Iraj Bashiri.... "there stays little expectation from that point (i.e.: Iran) for a validated diwan".
In spite of the fact that Hāfez's verse is impacted by Islam, he is broadly regarded by Hindus, Christians, and others. October 12 is praised as Hafez Day in Iran.
Hafez impacted in the religious request, as well as mainstream rationalists, for example, Engels specified him in the content beneath, extricated from Engels' letter to Marx:
It is, incidentally, fairly satisfying to peruse licentious old Hafiz in the first dialect, which sounds very tolerable and, in his sentence structure, old Sir William Jones likes to refer to as illustrations questionable Persian jokes, in this way converted into Greek verse in his Commentaries possess Asiatic are, in light of the fact that even in Latin they appear to him excessively foul. These analyses, Jones' Works, Vol. II, De Poesi erotica, will entertain you. Persian composition, then again, is dangerous dull. E.g. the Rauzât-us-safâ by the respectable Mirkhond, who describes the Persian epic in exceptionally colorful however vacuous dialect. Of Alexander the Great, he says that the name Iskander, in the Ionian dialect, is Akshid Rus (like Iskander, a degenerate adaptation of Alexandros); it implies much the same as filusuf, which gets from fila, adore, and sufa, insight, "Iskander" along these lines being synonymous with 'companion of astuteness'.
The subject of whether his work is to be deciphered actually, supernaturally or both, has been a wellspring of concern and dispute to western researchers. From one perspective, some of his initial perusers, for example, William Jones found in him a regular lyricist like European love artists, for example, Petrarch. Others, for example, Wilberforce Clarke considered him to be simply an artist of educational, overjoyed supernatural quality in the way of Rumi, a view which current grant has come to dismiss.
This perplexity originates from the way that, right on time in Persian scholarly history, the idyllic vocabulary was usurped by spiritualists who trusted that the unutterable could be preferable drawn closer in verse over in writing. In making ballads out of spiritualist substance, they pervaded each word and picture with supernatural hints, in this way making enchantment and lyricism basically meet into a solitary convention. Thus, no fourteenth-century Persian artist could compose an expressive lyric without having a kind of magic constrained on it by the beautiful vocabulary itself. While a few artists, for example, Ubayd Zakani, endeavored to separation themselves from this combined mysterious expressive custom by composing parodies, Hafez grasped the combination and flourished with it. W.M. Thackston has said of this that Hafez "sang an uncommon mix of human and spiritualist love so balanced...that it is difficult to separate one from the other."
Thus among others, the historical backdrop of the interpretation of Hāfez has been a muddled one, and a couple of interpretations into western dialects have been entirely fruitful.
One of the non-literal motions for which he is most popular (and which is among the hardest to decipher) is īhām or cunning punning. Consequently a word, for example, gowhar which could mean both "embodiment, truth" and "pearl" would go up against both implications immediately as in an expression, for example, "a pearl/basic truth which was outside the shell of shallow presence".
Hafez frequently exploited the previously mentioned absence of qualification between melodious, mysterious and laudatory written work by utilizing exceptionally intellectualized, expound allegories and pictures in order to recommend various conceivable implications. This might be represented through a couplet from the earliest starting point of one of Hafez' lyrics.
The previous evening, from the cypress branch, the songbird sang,
In Old Persian tones, the lesson of profound stations.
The cypress tree is an image both of the darling and of a superb nearness. The songbird and birdsong bring out the customary setting for human love. The "lessons of profound stations" recommend, clearly, an enchanted suggestion also. (In spite of the fact that the word for "otherworldly" could likewise be deciphered as "characteristically significant.") Therefore, the words could mean without a moment's delay a ruler tending to his gave adherents, a partner pursuing a darling and the gathering of profound shrewdness.
Hafez in Persian music
Numerous Persian writers have formed pieces propelled by Hafez's sonnets or on his ballads. Numerous Persian vocalists have likewise performed Hafez lyrics. Among them, Mohsen Namjoo formed music and vocals on a few lyrics of Hafez, for example, Zolf, Del Miravad, Nameh and others and Hayedeh (the melody Padeshah-e Khooban, music by Farid Zoland) and Mohammad-Reza Shajarian (the tune Del Miravad Ze Dastam, music by Parviz Meshkatian). The Ottoman arranger Buhurizade Mustafa Itri created his perfect work of art Neva Kâr on one of his lyrics. The Polish arranger Karol Szymanowski has additionally made The Love Songs out of Hafiz on German interpretation of Hafez lyrics.
Numerous Iranians utilize Divan of Hafez for fortune telling. Iranian families ordinarily have a Divan of Hafez in their home and when they get together amid Nowruz or Yaldā open the Divan haphazardly and read the ballad of that page. They trust that the sonnet on that page really coordinates what transpires later on.
Twenty years after his passing, a tomb (the Hafezieh) was raised to respect Hafez in the Musalla Gardens in Shiraz. The present Mausoleum was outlined by André Godard, French excavator, and draftsman, in the late 1930s. Inside, Hafez's alabaster headstone bears two of his sonnets recorded upon it.