Golestān Palace pronounced "Kakheh Golestān" is the former royal Qajar complex in the Iranian capital.
The oldest of the historical monuments in Tehran, a world cultural heritage, the Golestan Palace (The Rosengarten Palace) belongs to a group of royal buildings that once stood in the mud-throated walls of Tehran's historic Arg (citadel) Were included).
The Arg was built during the reign of Tahmasp I (1524-1576) of the Safavid Dynasty (1502-1736) and was later renovated by Karim Khan Zand (1750-1779). Agha Mohamd Khan Qajar (1742-1797) chose Tehran as his capital. The Arg became the place of the Qajar (1794-1925). The court and Golestan Palace became the official residence of the royal family Qajar. The palace was converted to its present form by Haji Abol-hasan Mimar Navai in 1865.
During the Pahlavi era (1925-1979) the Golestan Palace was used for formal royal receptions and the Pahlavi dynasty built its own palace in Niavaran. The most important ceremonies held in the palace during the Pahlavi era were the coronation of Reza Khan (R 1925-1941) in Takht-e Marmar and the coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (R 1941-ablated 1979) in the museum hall.
Between 1925 and 1945 a large part of the buildings of the palace were destroyed by order of Reza Shah, who believed that the centuries-old Qajar Palace should not hinder the growth of a modern city. In the 1950s and 1960s commercial buildings were erected on the site of the old buildings.
Golestan Palace Complex consists of 17 palaces, museums and halls. Almost all of this complex was built during 200 years of Qajar kings ruled. These palaces were used for many different occasions such as coronation and other important celebrations.
|Khalvat Karim Khani|
The spectacular terrace, known as Takht-e Marmar (Marmorthron), was built in 1806 on behalf of Fath Ali Shah Qajar (around 1797-1834). Decorated by paintings, marble carvings, tile work, stucco, mirrors (mirrors), enamels, wood carvings and lattice windows; The throne represents the most beautiful Iranian architecture. The marble throne is one of the oldest buildings of historical Arg. The existing throne, which is located in the middle of the terrace (Ivan), is made of the famous yellow marble of the province of Yazd.
The throne consists of sixty-five marble pieces and was designed by Mirza Baba Naghash Bashi (head painter) of the Qajar court. Mohammad Ebrahim, the Royal Mason, supervised the construction and several famous masters of the time worked on the execution of this masterpiece. The architectural details and other ornaments of the terrace (Ivan) were completed during the reign of Fath Ali Shah and Nasser - Din Shah (1848-1896).
The coronations of the Qajar kings and the official ceremonies were held on this terrace (Ivan). The last coronation that took place in Takht-e-Marmar was the coronation of the self-proclaimed king Reza Khan Pahlavi in 1925.
Khalvat Karim Khani
The building, dating from 1759, was part of the inner residency of Karim Khan Zand. The basic structure of Khalvat-e-Karim Khani resembles Takht-e-Marmar. Like the latter, it is a terrace (Ivan). In the terrace is a small marmorthron. The structure is much smaller than Takht-e-Marmar and it has much less ornamentation. There was once a small pond with a fountain in the middle of this terrace. Water from an underground stream (the king's Qanat) flowed from the well into the pond and was later used to irrigate the palace grounds.
Nasser-ol-Din Shah loved this corner of the Golestan Palace. He is said to have had a long time here, and is asleep-smokes his whistle in all his reflection. In fact, some believe that it was he who synchronized the structure Khalvat (Nook). It seems extraordinary, but the precious stone of Nasser-ol-Din Shah finally found its way to this real corner of the palace, after some time it was moved. This marble stone with a coveted image of Nasser-ol-Din Shah is in fact a place to see.
The works of European painters presented to the Qajar Court are housed in the Hoze Khaneh.
The Hoze Khaneh was used as a summer chamber during the Qajar ear. A special cooling system pumped water forms an underground system of streams (qanats) - in this case the king qanat - into small ponds in the chambers. Hose means pond, so the name hose Khaneh. The system was designed to allow for as many summer rooms as needed. The water was then led outside to irrigate the royal gardens. Due to the harmful effects of moisture, this system is no longer used.
Nasser-ol-Din Shah was very impressed with the exhibition of artifacts and valuable objects in the European museums during his second Europatournee around 1872. He returned to Tehran to build a museum hall to exhibit paintings, royal jewels, and other royal artefacts.
The original collection of the museum hall is now scattered in Tehran's many museums. However, the paintings of the royal court are now held at the Golestan Palace - with the European varnishes housed in the Khaneh hose, and the works of the Iranian painters placed in Negar Khaneh (the gallery). To show the development of painting in Iran during the Qajar era, the works of Iranian painters are exhibited in two sections. Housed in the southern part of Negar Khaneh are the works of the early Qajar masters such as Mirza Baba, More Ali Afshar, Ali Akbar Khan Mozaien-ol-Douleh, Aboul Hassan Sani, the Kamal-ol-Molk's Uncle
The northern Negar Khaneh, was the seat of the royal guard during the time of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The northern hall was extensively renovated in 1995 and today houses the works of the later masters of the Qajar era such as Mahmoud Khan Saba, Mohammed Gafari Kashani, Mehri, Mosa Momayez.
Talar-e Berelian (Hall of Brilliance) was so named because it is celebrated by the brilliant mirrorwork of Iranian craftsmen. The hall was built by Nasser-ol-Din Shah to replace another hall called Talar Bolour (Crystal Hall). Built by Fath Ali Shah, the Bolour Hall had disappeared from the moisture. The Berelian Hall is famous for its mirror work and chandeliers. An oil painting by Yahya Khan Sanie-ol-Molk Ghafari, shows the decorations of this hall performed before the renovation of Mozafar-ol-Din Shah (r. 1896-1907). Exists at Golestan Palace.
In the ethnography gallery in the Horsham Museum, Horsham, UK an Iranian tile is displayed. The tile, according to former Deputy Minister of Culture and Higher Education of Iran, Dr. Mehdittodjat, comes from the Golestan Palace built around 1810-20, one of the foundation buildings of Tehran. It comes from the entrance to the Salone Beriliyon (brilliant diamond) room and was probably a rejection or it may have been retrieved from the reconstruction of the palace in the period from 1867-92. It was found battered under a gate post in Shipley by Mr & Mrs Ayling, who gave him a friendly gift to the museum. The plaque was put in plaster and unfortunately not all glazed decoration survived.
Museum Of Gifts
This building is located under the Salam Hall or Museum. It is indeed a part of the first Iranian museum, which was built by Mohamad Ebrahim Khan Memar Bashi.
In Nasser-O-Din Shah's period, this building was used as a warehouse for the porcelain and cutlery dedicated to the Qajar kings.
In the Pahlavi period, this camp was turned into a museum to expose the rare gifts given to the Qajar kings.
At the moment, in addition to the gifts, some rare items are kept in this museum, some of them are as follows: 1- Helmet of King Esmail Safavid. 2- Bow and arrows of King Nader. 3- Bracelet of Fath Ali Shah. 4- The collection of Qajar seals. 5- Aga Mohamad Khan crown. 6- A decorated ostrich egg.
This building replaced the Narenjestan building in the north of Adj Hall or sofre Khaneh. All the chinaware that were dedicated to Qajar kings by the European kings were taken to this room and was arranged in show cases which were built for this purpose.
All the chinaware that exists in this room is rare and beautiful. Among them these are the most exceptional:
1- The chinaware that shows the Napoleonic wars dedicated by Napoleon the first.
2- The chinaware dedicated by King Nicoli the first.
3- Chinaware studded with gems and jewels dedicated by Queen Victoria.
4- The chinaware which was dedicated by King Vilhelm to the Iranianan crown prince.
5- A set made by Melacit stone dedicated by Alexandre the third.
Talar-e Adj (Hall of Ivory) is a large hall used as a dining room. It was decorated with gifts presented to Nasser-ol-Din Shah by European monarchs.
Among the Golestan Palace collection, a watercolor by Mahmoud Khan Malek-ol-Shoara, shows the exterior view of this hall during the Qajar period.
Talar-e Aineh (Hall of Mirrors) is the most famous of the Palace hall. This relatively small hall is famous for its extraordinary mirror work. The Hall was designed by Haj Abdoul Hossein Memar bashi (Sanie-ol-Molk).Yahaya Khan Moetamed-ol-Molk,the Minister of Architecture,acted as consultant to the designer.
Talar Salam (lobby) was originally designed as a museum. After the Takht-e-Tavoos (the famous jewel-peacock throne of the Iranian Jew) was transferred to the royal jewelery collection at the central bank, this room was designed for special receptions in the presence of the king, the name Talar Salam.
Tourists and ambassadors from European courts, who were received during the reign of Nasser-ol-Din Shah in the argument, spoke of this excellent hall, which compares them with their European counterparts.
This hall has exquisite mirror work. The ceiling and the walls are decorated with plaster. The floors are covered with mosaic.
During the reign of Nasser-ol-Din Shah, this hall was used to present Iranian and European paintings alongside gifts presented to the Iranian court. Royal jewels were also exhibited in glass cases. These jewels are now housed in the Royal Jewels Museum of the Central Bank.
After Nassereddin Shah returned from Europe in 1869, after visiting several museum and art galleries, he decided to establish similar sides in his Arg. He had destroyed the outer building and new ones built on the northwest wing of the Golestan Palace next to the ivory hall. These buildings included a lobby, a mirror room and a museum room. The construction of the museum premises began in 1870 and ended in 1873. However, it was not used until 1878 because of the numerous ornaments.
This hall was to be a museum from the beginning.
Nevertheless, after the peacock throne had been moved from the mirror hall to the museum, this hall became the site of the official court rendezvous and was thus called the lobby. The most precious objects and works of art presented to the monarch of Persia, especially the jewels, were held in this hall.
In 1966, on the occasion of the Mohammed Reza Coronation, the decoration of this hall was modified to give it its present form.
The summer chamber in the cellar was divided into two parts. The eastern part, called the Special Hall, is devoted to the magazine Qajar. The western part, known as the art gallery, is the venue for an exhibition of Persian paintings by Qajar.
Rooms, themselves, with their high arches and ornamented hot-hungry and the numerous and large chandeliers are competitors for the eye of the beholder of the beauties that fill their rooms. Ceiling, flooring and railings also catch the eye of the visitor.
Emarat Badgir (Tower of Wind Towers) was built during the reign of Fath Ali Shah (around 1806). The building was subjected to major renovations, including structural changes, during the reign of Nasser-ol-Din Shah. A watercolor rendering by Mahmood Khan Malek-ol-Shoara shows the original structure before renovations,.
The building is flanked by two rooms, known as Goshvar (earrings). There is a central room with the finest glass window in the Golestan Palace. Outside there are four windtowers of blue, yellow and black glazed tiles and a golden dome. The windtowers are designed to allow the cooling wind to move through the structure.
Talar Almas (Hall of Diamonds) is located in the southern wing of the Golestan Palace next to the Badgir Building. It is called Hall of Diamonds because of the extraordinary reflection inside the building.
The construction of this hall dates from the time of Fath Ali Shah (circa 1806). Nasser-ol-Din Shah renovated this hall and changed its appearance and replaced the Ogival arches of the hall with Roman. He also ordered the walls covered with wallpapers. As the basic structure dates from the time of Fath Ali Shah, it is only. It is only that this hall should be devoted to the exhibition of art and crafts from this time.
Shams-ol-Emareh (Building of the Sun) is the most beautiful structures of the Golestan Palace.
The idea of building a high structure came before his first European and pictorial images of European buildings to Nasser-ol-Din Shah. The monarch wanted a structure from which he could have a panoramic view of the city.
Designed by Moayer-ol-Mamalek, the construction began on the Shams-ol-Emareh in 1865 and was completed two years later. The architect was Master Ali Mohammad Kashi.
The building has two identical towers. The exterior views have several arches, complicated tile work and artistic windows. This building is a fusion of Persian and European architecture.
The Ottoman king, Sultan Abdoulhamid, send valuable gifts to Nasser-ol-Din Shah. According to reports, these gifts were plentiful and enough to fill a castle. The Qajar monarch was pleased with these gifts. He decided to build an exhibition hall worthy of this gift in the limits of the Golestan Palace. It is believed that Nasser-ol-Din Shah herself has designed the structure, with a central hall large enough to accommodate the carpet sent by Sultan Abdoulhamid.
Completed in 1883, Abyaze Castle (White) now houses one of the most interesting ethological museums in Iran. There is a colorful exhibition of traditional Iranian costumes, as well as a folk art exhibition
In its current state, the Golestan Palace is the result of some 400 years of construction and renovation. The buildings at the contemporary location each have a unique history.
On October 11, 2005, the Cultural Heritage Organization handed over the UNESCO Palace to the list of World Cultural Heritage in 2007. On 23 June 2013, it was proclaimed a World Cultural Heritage during the UNESCO Phnom Penh Meeting.
The Kushk of Shams-ol-Emareh was built in 1867 in Ustad Muhammad-ali Kashi.
Golestan Palace is currently operated by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.
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