The light pink table diamond, the Darya-i-Only (Sea of Light) weighing 186 carats, is the largest pink diamond in the world and originated in the famous Kollur diamond mines of South India. It was thought to be part of the "Grand Table Diamond" or "Diamanta Grand Table" Tavernier saw when he visited Golconda in 1642 during one of his many trips to India in the 17th century. Tavernier also reported that the "Great Table Diamond" was mounted at a time on the famous "Peacock Throne" by Shah Jahaan. Modern diamond historians in the attempt to pursue the "Great Table Diamond" eventually concluded that the 186 carat table cut "Darya-i-Only" diamond, which was part of the Iranian crown jewels, might be a part of it, And another 60-carat oval pink diamond known as the Nur-ul-Ain, which also belonged to the Iranian crown jewels, may be another part. A team of Canadian experts who conducted research on Iranian crown jewels in 1965 also came to the same conclusion, and it is now widely recognized that the Great Table Diamond was split into two parts during the reign of one of the Mogul emperors after Shah The main part was converted into the Darya-i-Nur and the smaller part into the Nur-ul-Ain.
In 1739, Nadir Shah entered the Mogul capital cities of Delhi and Agra, partly by his desire to lay the riches of the richest kingdom in the world at that time, and partly by his desire to become the Mogul rulers To punish some of the crown jewels of Iran, belonging to the Safavid dynasty, formerly plundered by Mahmud of Kandahar in 1722. Nadir Shah carried with him an enormous spoil containing the peacock throne of Shah Jahaan and some famous diamonds like the Koh-i-Noor, the Darya-i-Nur, the Nur-ul-Ain, The two diamonds of the Darya I-Nur and the Nur-ul-Ain later became two of the most famous diamonds in the Iranian crown jewels.
After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747, the Darya-i only fell into the hands of his blind grandson Shah Rukh, who between 1748 and 1796 dominated the Afsharid state in Khorasan with its capital in Mashhad. After Agha Muhammad Khan attacked Qajar and captured Khorasan and Mashhad in 1796, Shah Rukh was captured and then tortured and forced to give up all the jewels he owned, including the Darya-i Nur. In 1797, after the assassination of Agha Muhammad Khan, Qajar the Darya-i-only came into the possession of his nephew and successor Fath Ali Shah (1797-1834), who wrote his name on a facet of the diamond. After the Fath Ali Shah, the diamond was inherited from his grandson and successor Muhammad Shah (1834-1848), from whom he descended to his son and successor Nasser-ed-Din Shah (1848-96).
After inheriting the Darya-i-only diamond, Nasser-ed-Din Shah wore it as an arm-band to believe that the diamond at one time decorated the crown of Cyrus the Great. Later he wore it as a brooch, but later he ordered his jewelers to make a special mountain for the diamond. The royal jewelers assembled the Darya-i-only on an elaborate rectangular frame, 7.2 cm by 5.3 cm, with 457 smaller diamonds and 4 rubies, surpassed by the royal symbols of the lion and the sun, Origin of the Iranian people The Darya-i-only diamond has been preserved in the same line until today.
With Iran in chaos, the looters found those who had a large portion of the treasure or bought small fortunes of soldiers at low prices, found the Indian market suitable for the trade of their looters. Thus, a good portion of the profits of the Safavid dynasty were transferred to the Teimuriden court of India.
Nader Gholi, who accompanied the Iranian king, Shah Tahmasb II, at the entrance to Isfahan, could only take back the portion of the treasury that Mahmoud Afghan had brought to Ashraf Afghan. After this, Nader Shah wrote a series of letters to the Indian court to regain possession of the stolen jewels. When the Indian king opposed Nader's warning, the Afshari king fell into India. After the occupation of Delhi he installed Mohammad Shah as the king of India. Mohammed Shah agreed to transfer shipments of jewelry, weapons and weapons to Nader Shah in return for his pledge of armistice.
A part of the treasury recovered from India was damaged or missing on its way to Iran. When it was the costume, Nadir Shah, after returning to Iran, presented some of the jewelry to neighboring kingdoms such as Ottoman Emperor Soltan Mahmoud, Russian Queen Elizabeth ... and Bukhara ruler Abolfeiz Khan. He also introduced some of the precious stones and jewels to the holy shrine of the eighth Imam of the Shiite Muslims, Imam Reza (peace be upon him), and distributed some among his army.
Shortly after Nader Shah was killed in 1747 CE, Ahmad Khan Ebdali, a commander of Nadir Shah's army, plundered the royal treasury with the help of a number of soldiers he had gathered around him. One of the most precious pieces smuggled from Iran and never recovered was the Koh-i Noor diamond.
The Qajar king, Agha Mohammad Khan, began to retrieve parts of the Afshari treasure chamber. Agha Mohammad Khan was the first ruler after Nadir Shah, who was determined to protect the Iranian treasury. Agha Mohammad Khan's successor, Fatthali Shah, continued to protect and preserve the royal treasury carefully, mainly because he was very keen on jewelry and ornaments.
Fatthali Shah ordered the famous Naderi bed, the Takhte Tavoos bed and the Kiani crown. Naser o-Din Shah, another Qajar ruler, also sought to compile and preserve the royal ornament. He bought 48 pieces of large yellow diamonds, which are currently held in the Treasury of the National Jewelry. The gemmed Globe is another piece that is attributed to him and shows his passion for collecting and preserving jewels.
The following Qajarid kings, Mozaffar o-Din Shah and Mohammed Ali Shah, commanded their treasure chiefs to log to prevent a careful recording of the royal treasury to prevent the theft of the precious collection.
During the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi and under a law adopted at the Irish Parliament on November 16, 1937, a large part of the royal treasury was transferred to the National Bank of Iran to strengthen the financial power of the bank and also to serve as a support The monetary system. In January 1960, during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, the collection was transferred to the newly established Central Bank.
After the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1979, the royal collection of the Pahlavi dynasty as well as some other pieces of the Central Bank Treasury were added. Since then it has become a treasury of national Iranian jewels.
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