Tehran Grand Bazaar
The markets of Islamic cities are one of the greatest achievements of Islamic civilization and can not be found in other countries. At the time when Islam ruled over much of the world, bazaars had become a common feature of the cities dominated by Islam. Economy and religion are the two main pillars of the Islamic bazaars, which symbolize their distinction from other markets.
When mentioning the word BAZAAR, every Eastern European is unconsciously reminded of a place where the ceiling can be lowered from the ceiling at the given intervals by beautiful sunrays. On both sides is a collection of shops. The delicious smells of different spices, the screams of the sellers of goods and their customers and the rhythmic sound of hammers of artists are connected in the head.
The word "bazaar" was used in the Sassanid Pahlavi texts in the form of WAZAR, and in combinations such as WAZARG (the bazaar), WAZARGAN (business man), WAZARGANIEH (commercial), WAZARBAD (director of the bazaar).
After that, this Farsi word was introduced into other languages and found a similar linguistic application. As an example, the equivalent of the word BAZAAR is given below several living languages which are in fact the same word in other forms:
English: BAZAAR, French: BAZAR, Portuguese-Spanish: BAZAR, Arabic-Hungarian: Pazar and VAZAR, Indian: BAZAR, Turkish: Bazar and Pazar.
It seems that the universal fame of the Constantinople markets and the important part they played in trade between the countries, and in particular trade between West and East, played an important role in the widespread use of this word in European languages.
A bazaar is a kind of marketplace, although many - like Tehran's Grand Bazaar - fulfill many additional functions and not just trade. Throughout its history, the Grand Bazaar has hosted banks and financiers, mosques and guest houses.
Tehran Grand Bazaar is a historical market in the capital Iran, Tehran.
Traditionally, the Tehran bazaar was divided into corridors, which specialized in various types of goods, including copper, carpets, paper, spices and precious metals, as well as small traders selling all kinds of goods. Today, modern goods are also available, in addition to the many traditional corridor traders who still survive.
The Grand Bazaar is located in southern Tehran; Its many corridors are over 10 km long. There are several entrances, some of which are locked and guarded at night.
While the current bazaar is most associated with the 19th century onwards, its roots go back much further.
The Historical Context
Tehran, one of the northern villages of the historic city of Rey, had an undefined existence before Islam. According to Islam, where Doulab and Aliabad and Tarasht are referred, no Tehran is mentioned.
Ibn Balkhi refers for the first time to 510/1131 A.D. According to Teheran in describing the good quality of its pomegranates. Then the name of the largest current city of Iran is mentioned in history and historical geography texts.
After the Mongul, Ilkhanid and Timurid era, Tehran gained glory during the Safavid period as a village with 12 small districts that were not in peace with each other whose inhabitants left their time by marching and stolen the properties of the caravans.
What can be inferred from historical texts is that the first houses of Tehranis were subterranean, mostly in the form of shelters, where the inhabitants concealed the characteristics and food they pillaged. To this pleasant, habitable yet warm village, beautiful gardens with tall and mixed plane trees were gradually cultivated. Consequently, a number of European travelers called it the city of plane trees, just as Istanbul was called the city of the cypress.
After the rise of the Qajar Dynasty and its choice of Tehran as its capital, its dignity and glory grew day by day until today that it is one of the largest cities in the world.
The area around Tehran has been inhabited since at least 6000 BC, and while the bazaar-like construction in Iran as a whole has been dating since 4000 BC, the Tearan bazaar is not so old. It is hard to say when the "bazaar" appeared first, but in the centuries after the introduction of Islam, travelers reported the growth of trade in the area now occupied by the present bazaar. The Grand Bazaar is a continuation of this heritage.
Researchers point out that part of today's bazaar predicted the growth of the village of Tehran under the Safavids dynasty, although it was during and after this time that the bazaar began to grow gradually.
Western travelers said that the bazaar area until 1660 BC. And in addition, it was largely open and only partially covered.
Despite the fact that he relied on this historical heritage, a large part of the bazaar itself was recently built. The oldest remaining buildings, walls and passages in the bazaar today are rarely 400 years old, with many built or converted in the last 200 years. In this sense, the current Grand Bazaar is one of the newest in the Middle East.
The bazaar grew as a "city in a city" for a large part of the 19th century and could expand largely without external interference. However, when Tehran exponentially began growing under Reza Shah in the early 20th century, the changes caused by this rapid expansion disappeared much from the bazaar (including such areas as the Perfume Bazar and the Moat Bazaar).
The old sections of the bazaar are generally similar in architectural style, while the parts added in the twentieth century often look distinctly different; Critics say that less care was taken in the construction of later sections. However, in order to enhance the prestige of the bazaar, the projects were designed to embellish the bazaar by the use of plaster form, and the decorative masonry was undertaken at the end of the 20th century.
It is probable that a small section of today's Bazaar complex in Tehran was the original core of the Teheran-inhabitable village before the Safavids and the Shah Tahmasb period. During the reign of this king, along with the construction of towers and fortifications of the Bazaar was also built.
At that time part of the Baza was enclosed and the other part was open. In this connection, Thomas Herbert, who described the Bazar of Teheran in 1039/1660 A.D. Visited, in the following two fashions:
The original bazaar of Tehran stretched from Sabzeh Meidan to Molavi Avenue, and two famous Chaharsous (crossway), called the Big and the Little Chaharsous, were built in 1228/1849 and 1243/1864. In the Bazar, Caravanserais, Timchehs (Arcades), SARAs, BARANDAZ, GOZARs and DALANs (closed bazaars, houses, docks, passages and corridors) were gradually built. Included in this category are: the Mahdieh Timcheh, with a two-storey quadrangular building, which is probably the oldest Timcheh of Tehran; Saray-e-Amir, known as Atabakieh with 336 chambers built in 1267/1888 by order of Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir; The Rastenh Bazaar of Mirza Taghi Khan, built in 1268/1889, with two rows of hatmakers and shoemakers; Hajeb-od-doleh Timcheh, remaining from Haj Ali Khan Hajeb-od-doleh (Etemad-os-Saltaneh); And Nasser-ed-Din Shahs Sharifter, a very famous and most beautiful Timcheh of Iran.
All were built in the lower Bazaar of Tehran. Thus, the wide and expanded network of the Bazaar of Tehran was extended from the south of Arg to Molavi Avenue. In this expanded network the components of the bazaar (timches, houses, rows, corridors, docks, caravanserais) appeared together with buildings like mosques, schools, bathhouses with beautiful patterns. In the course of the expansion of the city and the change of the city structures, a series of passages disappeared.
Of the 36 bazaars of the time, a number of bazaars disappeared, including the Khandag Bazaar, the Perfume Sellers Bazaar, the Chicken Sellers Bazaar and the Galoubandak Bazaar with the Avenue constructions at the time of Reza Shah. A number of these bazaars, including cane makers and goldsmiths, were shortened and made smaller. Likewise, a number of them traded other professions due to changes in the way of life of society. These were the bazaars of the weavers and the boat-pens near the leather basar in the southeast of the larger Chaharsou.
The most important present bazaars of Tehran are Udlajan, cloth shoppers, shoemakers, goldsmiths, iron smiths, copper smiths, Abbas-Abad, leg-ol-Haramein, Cheheltan (the oldest series from the rule of Fath-Ali Shah), Greater Chaharsou, Masjed Jame , Hazrati, Pachenar, etc.
In the buildings of the series and other units related to the Tehran bazaar complex, we experience the creation of functional and beautiful spaces of architecture in terms of patterns, volumes and facades. Unfortunately, this phenomenon suffered from the beginning of the 14th / 20th century. Century, because of the inharmonic growth of the bazaar, with fundamental changes and the use of materials without harmony. The bazaar suffered greatly.
The attention of designers and architects to the creation of coverage of certain sections of the bazaar, including the crossroads and specifically the Timchehs, for the purpose of eliminating the monotony is quite obvious.
Various methods have been used in this context. These include decorative portals of houses and timches, decorative and colorful plaster forms under the dome-shaped ceilings, which include various plant designs and beautiful brick decorations.
Here is a comment from Ursels, a European tourist who visited the Bazar of Tehran in 1261/1882:
"From Sabzeh Meidan the bazaar can be entered by two glorious entrances; the Bazaar was a city for the population, which during the course of the day took twenty to twenty-five thousand people... The wide and labyrinthine passages stood under bricks with small windows."
The Grand Bazaar is still an important trading place for Tehranis, Iranians, traveling merchants and - increasingly - tourists. However, much of the trade and finance in the city has moved to the north of the city, so the bazaar has somewhat declined. Nevertheless, in addition to the traditional goods on sale, the market for watches and local jewelry is apparently growing, probably for the benefits of tourists. As in line with the market spirit, tourists are encouraged to haggle. The Bazar sees the peak of its business activity at midday and between 5 and 7 in the evening.
From October 2005 there are plans to build a hotel in the southern part of the bastion in favor of tourists to make the Bazar more hospitable and regain some of its importance.
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