Historical sites of Kashan briefly
Agha Bozurg Mosque
The Agha Bozurg Mosque and School Complex in Fazel-e Naraghi Street, belong to the second half of the last century (Qajar period), When the country’s architects produced a number of unforgettable masterpieces. The Complex considered as one of the most beautiful and magnificent Islamic monuments of Iran .was constructed by Haj Mohammad Taghi Khanban for congregational prayers, preaching and teaching sessions held by Mulla Mahdi Naraghi II Known as Agha Bozurg. The vast sanctuary of the mosque is in two floors. The first floor, being at the same level with the pool and area allocated to the school garden, houses 12 cells on three sides, and the mosque appears at the top floor. The mosque has a beautiful portal decorated with moqarnas and paintings (by Master Mohammad Bagher Qamsari), brick dome and two minarets covered with mosaic tiles seen from two sides of the dome. In plan, the Mosque has three sanctuaries (shabestans). The whole Complex is built of brick and decorated with inscriptions and tile works. The complex has been repaired several times, and nowadays it stands as one of the study and well-maintained monuments of the city. It is open to visitors every day from 8 Am to 6 PM.
To the north of the Complex and within a few meters, stands a beautiful building with two brick domes, which is known as the Shrine of Khajeh Taj pd-Din. Here are buried sons of two Imams, called Shahzadeh Is’haq and Shahzadeh Abitaleb, both relatives of the seventh Imam. Early remains of the Shrine belong to the Seljuk period, and its ceiling was built during the reign of Mongols.
Bazaar and Other Sites
One of the most fascinating sightseeing places in Kashan is the bazaar historic complex (first erected in the safavid era, but rebuilt in it’s present form early in the nineteenth century) with many interesting buildings in it,such as Saray-e Amin od- Dowleh, caravansaries (Gomrok,Now, Mirpanj, Bourjerdiha, and Zoghaliha, nearly 1,100 years old), mosques (Mir Emad, Bala Bazaar, Tabriziha, and Kaffash’ha), baths (Khan znd gozar Now), water storage (Haj Seyed Hossein), and smaller bazaars (copper smiths, gold smiths, dyers, Gozar Now, Pa NakhI, Qaisarieh, Mianchal, Malek, and Sardar) for the sale of hand-woven capets of silk and velvet. Local perfumes (golab) and sweets. Among other sites of historic interest in and outside Kashan, mention could be made of Mausoleum of Abu Lo’Lo’. From Safavid period. At the beginning of Kashan-Fin road; the jalali Dortification Complex surrounding the town (city walls), from the eleventh century, at the end of Alavi Street; Minar-e Zain od-Din (late eleventh or early twelfth century) in Mulla Habibollah Sharif street (Darvazeh Esfahan); Ghazi Historical complex, from Seljuk and Safavid periods, 10 km to the northwest of Kashan; Maranjab Caravansary, built by Shah Abbas 1.50km to thenorth of Aran (in Kevir); Imamzadeh Hadi Shrine in Bidgol, from safavid period, 8 km to the northeast of kashan; Nushabad jam’e Mosque, with a bricjk minarest of Safavid period, in brick minaret of Safavid period, in Nushabad, 12 km to the north of Kashan; Niasar Sassanian Fire Temple from the early Islamic period (7th and 8th centuries) in Niasar village, 25km to the northwest of Kashan; and many other old houses, shrines, mosques, and baths, about which you can find out at Kashan.
Borujerdis Old house
The present premises of kashan cultural Heritage Department, the Borujerdis old house Was built nearly 130 years ago by a famous merchant named Haj Seyed ja’far borujerdi from Natanz, who imported goods from Borujerd in Lurestan province.
The construction date (1293 A. H.) can still be seen on the covered inscription of the building, completion of which required 18 years of work by tens of laborers master painters, and architects. A vast rectangular courtyard is opened up to the visitor after passing an entrance portico and a narrow corridor. Reception, ceremonial, and residential halls and rooms are arranged on the four sides of the courtyard. Provision of well-proportioned spaces, nicely- designed bad- girs (wind towers) to fit the building, particularly paintings by the famous Iranian painter Kamal ol-Molk Ghaffari, have served to convert it to an art masterpiece in itself.
The Houses is located in Alavi Street, Sultan Amir Ahmad District, and can be visited every day from 8 Am to 6 PM
Fin Historic Garden
Bagh-e Shah, the King’s Garden (also known as the Bagh-e Tarikhi-e fin or Bagh-e Amir Kabir) at Fin 6 km to the southwest, and perhaps the finest surviving example in Iran, creates the contrast between the Kevir region and the greenery of the well-tended oasis below the adjoining Karkass mountain. A major part of Kashan’s water was supplied by the perennial source of Suleimanieh spring in the garden.
References to Fin in historical sources go back to more than 1,000 years. Designed for Shah Abbas I, this classical Persian vision of paradise has always been prixed for its natural springs and still contains the remains of his two- story palaced set around a pool. The garden has other Safavid royal buildings , although they were substantially rebuilt, and other were added in the Qajar period. The building housing Kashan Museum was built in 1968, in harmony with the historical monuments within the Garden, covering 900 square meters, and comprising 8 vast galleries, wherein items rom Iranian culture and civilization in various periods of history are displayed.
At present, the pleasant sight of water from Suleimanieh spring, ever spouting from fountainheads by the sole means of difference in elevation is one of the attractions of this complex. Flowing at an elevations of 1,060 meters above sea level, it passes through numerous paths of the Garden, reaches the Fin village, and waters orchards famous for their unparalleled figs and pomegranates. Once it operated 33 water-mills. Apart from being used for medical purpose in the past centuries and attracting the attention of many scholars and physicians, it was estimated that the daily turn over of this spring amounted to one thousand mesghals (5 kg) of pure gold.
Although Kashan was in a state of decay during the early Qajar times, the village Fin and its beautiful Garden were nevertheless one of the favorite resorts of Fath Ali Shah; in fact he was as fond of the place as any of Safavid predecessors had been. He rebuilt the palace, planted many more cypresses and bordered the stream from the sparing with marble slabs, Although usually associated with ease and pleasure (such as the coronation of Safavid kings) , Fin was the scene of a tragedy in 1852 , when Mirza Taqi Khan known as Amir Kabir, the Grand vizier of Nasser od-Din Shah, was murdered there. He is considered a national hero and vanguard of modern Iran. Fin can be reached by Shared taxi and bus from central Kashan via Amir Kabir Street and 17Th shahrivar square. It is open to visitors every day from 8 Am to6pm
Now called the Imam Khomeini School, it is one of the largest and most magnificent buildings in Kashan, and was once used as the religious students’ accommodation. The building is located next to the Jeweler’s Bazaar . Built in early 19th century by the order of Fath Ali Shah Qajar in 9 years, the school has a double-shell brick dome, measuring 27 meters from the ground level to its inner surface. There are 52 cells on four sides of the rectangular courtyard of the School. It is open to visitors every day from 8 AM to 6 PM.
Being Kashan oldest building from Seljuk period, the mosque (also known as the Friday Mosque) has a brick dome and a high ivan. It is said that the original building was a fire- temple before the conversion of people of Islam. The older minaret od the mosque is from the eleventh or twelfth century and the third oldest minaret in Iran according to its inscription; rest of the building in later. Original combinations of brick and glazed tile can be seen on the ceiling of the underneath floor. The mosque is located on Baba Afzal Street. It is open to visitors every day from 8AM to 6PM.
One of the most interesting religious ceremonies of Shiites is held in Mashhad-e Ardehal, 40km to the east of Kashan. On arriving in the village, the visitor will find a tomb on a slope of high hill. Inside the tomb lies His Holiness Sultan Ali, son of the fifth Imam. Who was invited from Medina to this region nearly 12 centuries ago. The tomb has two magnificent courtyards and a couple of splendid balconies. The whole building complex along with the tall minarets decorated with ceramic tiles, belong to Seljuk period architecture.
|Sultan Amir ahmad Shrine|
A large crowd from Qum, Kashan, khomein, Mahallat, Saveh, Delijan, Golpayegan, Yazd, and many other towns gather here during the second Friday of the month of Mehr (early October) to commemorate the chain of events Leading to the founding of the present-day Ghali Shuyan (carpet washing) ceremony of his occasion of the assassination of His Holiness. Inhabitants of Fin, at the time of the event, on hearing of this, rushed to the place to no avail. They put his body on a carpet and, as is the Muslim custom, washed him in a stream that was 150 meters away from the place, and then buried him.
Since then, the people of Fin hold the same ceremony on the same day. They leave the Shrine carrying the remain of the same carpet on their shoulders, and while mourning, symbolically beat the remains with long sticks to show their harted towards the enemies of His Holiness. No outsider is allowed to touch the remains of the carpet.
Tomb of sohrab Sepehri, a modern Iranian poet and painter, is located in the eastern wing of the Shrine. Another important religious ceremony held annually on the 21st day of Ramazan (fasting month), takes place in the historic site of Mohammad Helal Shirine in Aran, 10 km to the north of kashan. Helal was a direct descendant of His Holiness Imam Ali.
Sultan Amir ahmad Shrine
Sultan Amir Ahmad was the son of Imam Musa bn-e Ja’dar whose shrine along with a sanctuary, wide porticos and a conic dome are of the most interesting sights to see. The shirine dates back to the Seljuk and Safavid period. The ceramic works in front of the large ivan and two lateral minarets have been reconstructed during the Qajar period. The site is located in Alavi Street, Sultan Amir Ahmad Distric.
On Amir Kabir street which leads to the Bagh-e Shah (Fin) from Kashan is the mound of Tappeh Sialk the site of a prehistoric culture which was dated by Ghirshman who excavated the Tappeh in the 30s and later, to the second half of the 15th millennium BC. Later discoveries showed that the Site is more than 7,000 years old. It is a probably the riches archaeological site so far uncovered in central Iran, although the most interesting finds have been moved to various institutes and museums, including National Museum of Iran in Tehran and louvre in Paris.
There are two mounds here, known as the Greater Sialk (25m high, 260* 190m, to the south) and the Smaller Sialk (6-m high, 320* 110m, to the north, and containing older objects) with a distance of 600 m. Excavated by the French Archaeological Service in 1933-36 and 1937-38, the site (with the adjoining cemetery) revealed a large number and variety of bronze tools, painted pottery and domestic implements of clay (statuettes) glassware (vessels), stone and bone (ornamental objects), human and animal figures from as early as the 4th millennium BC, and is believed to have Been sacked and deserted in about the 8th century BC. You can still see the outline of various mud-brick buildings and a large number of potsherds embedded throughout the two mounds.
Perhaps the most interesting finds are some inscribed clay tables dating from the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BC. The remains here give an interesting record of the waves of immigrants and conquerors who passed his way, and settled near the abundant water supply at the site of the present-day Bagh-e Fin. The most important discoveries of this area the clay tables of the Elamite origin, which reveal that there has existed a kind of writing in the Central Iran around 2000 BC.