Niavaran Palace Complex
Niavaran Palace Complex is located in the northern part of Tehran, Iran in 9000 square meters. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqaraniyeh Palace from the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of the Qajar Dynasty is also present in this complex. The Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the main residence of the last Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, and the imperial family until the Iranian Revolution. The main palace was designed by the Iranian architect Mohsen Foroughi in 1337 AH (1958) and after a short delay its construction was completed in 1346 AH (1967) and used in 1347 AH (1968).
There are five museums (Niavaran Palace Museum, Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, Sahebqaraniyeh Palace, Jahan Nama Museum and private library), and other cultural, historical and natural attractions such as the Blue Hall, Private Cinema, Jahan Nama Gallery and Niavaran Garden.
The Niavarān Palace Complex has its origin in a garden in Niavaran, Tehran, used as a summer residence by Nasir al-Din Shah. The palace, erected by Nasir al-Din Shah in this garden, was originally designated as the castle of Niavarān and was later renamed to Sahebqaraniyeh Palace. During the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, all the peripheral buildings of the Sahebqraniyeh Palace were demolished, with the exception of the Ahmad Shahi pavilion (or Kushk-e Ahmad-Shahi), and the buildings and structures of today's Niavarān Palace complex were located north of the palace Sahebqaraniyeh Built. During this time, the Ahmad Shahi Pavilion served as a showcase for the gifts of world leaders in Iran.
The quadrangular design of the palace and its interior archaeological design is inspired by Iranian archeology using modern technology. His decorations were also inspired by the pre-Islamic and the Islamic art. The plaster work was performed by Master Abdollahi, the mirrorwork of Master Ali Asghar, the tiling of the outer part of Master Ibrahim Kazempour and Ilia. The building floor is covered with black stone and has an aluminum sunroof. The interior decoration and furniture of the palace were designed and implemented by a French group. On the ground floor of the building there is a large hall with all the rooms, including a private cinema, a dining room, a guest room, a waiting room and side rooms as well as the Blue Hall.
In the half floor of this building, the office, conference room, Farah Diba's secretary room, Leila's bedroom and her room. In the stairs there is a room where Mohammad-Rezas military uniforms and official suits and his medals are held.
On the third floor are Pahlavis retirees and their children's rooms. These places are all with valuable paintings, carpets and gifts from different countries.
Ahmad Shahi Pavilion
On an area of 800 square meters north of the Sahebqaraniyeh Palace, this two-storey pavilion was built in the key days of the Qajar period, as a private retirement for Ahmad Shah with brick facades and decoration The brick facades have different designs and are in buff color The entrance of the pavilion is located on The southern side of the building, which is connected to the pavilion by various stairways that set aside a pond-covered pond.
The Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, after restoration and interior work, was used as the residence and office of Reza Pahlavi, by exhibiting his furniture during Pahlavi II.
The ground floor of this building consists of a hall with a pond of marble stone in its center with six rooms and two corridors around. Decorative items of silver, bronze, ivory, wood and souvenirs from various countries such as India, paintings, medals etc. were exhibited here. Other objects such as decorative mineral stones, a stone from the moon, various plant and animal fossils are also kept in this building.
The second floor of this building consists of a central hall and a four-sided veranda. Wood floors were installed around the main hall, which was used as a music room. Around the porch are covered six square bricks and 26 round plaster columns. The gypsum pattern of lions and sun can be seen on the north wall of the porch.
After the Islamic revolution during the restoration and renovation phases, the lower parts of the walls were renovated and opened at the same time as the Cultural Heritage Week (2000).
In 1267 AH (1388), Nasser-ed-Din-Shah ordered to erect the Niavaran Palace on two floors, including Shah-neshin, Korsi-Khaneh, bath and forty to fifty buildings Each consisting of four rooms and a terrace, which is accommodated by its consorts.
During the 31st year of his reign, he called himself SahebQaran, and therefore called this palace a Sahebqaraniyeh.
After him, Mozaffar-ed-din Shah made some changes in the building and ruined part of the harem. The constitution was also signed by him in the court of this palace.
Under Pahlavi I this palace was renovated for the marriage of Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi with Princess Fawziah for the reception of the guests, but because of the severe winter the ceremonies were not held there.
Under Pahlavi II, Farah Diba made fundamental changes in its interior decorations and buildings, and the first floor, ie hose Khaneh (pool room), was used for the reception of guests and the second floor was used as an office of Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi Is used.
Further rooms of this palace are: Sofreh-Khaneh (dining room), teahouse, bar, game room on the first floor and meeting room, waiting room for the foreign missions, secretary, dentist and retiree of Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi All doors and windows of this building are with colorful glasses Decorated. It was repaired In 1374 AH (1995) and in 1377 AH (1998) again as a museum opened.
Jahan Nama Museum
In 1976, a section in the western part of the Sahebqaraniyeh Palace was allocated to the souvenirs and items acquired by Farah Diba, with four halls on the ground floor and a hall on the ground floor. On the ceiling of the main hall of this museum are exquisite paintings on wood with floral and bird patterns by Shiraz. This museum was opened in 1997.
The works of this museum were exhibited in two parts; Prehistoric art and the contemporary art of Iran and the world. The works include the pre-Columbian works, the metal works of Lorestan, the ceramic works of Amlash, the works of the Red Indians in the north of America in the context of the first and second centuries BC and works by contemporary Iranian artists Sohrab Sepehri, Naser Owesi, Faramarz Pilaram, Ja'afar Roohbakhsh, Parviz Kalantari, Bahman Mohassess, Sirak Melkonian, Jazeh Tabatabai, Mash Esmail, Parviz Tanavoli and non-Iranian artists; George Brack, Paul Gogen, Paul Klee, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Pierre August Renoir, Diego Giacometti, Fernand Leger and Marc Chagall.
The private library of the Niavaran Palace is located in the eastern part of the palace, two floors and an underground floor in a 770 square meter area and was built in 1976. The interior architecture of this building was performed by Aziz Farmanfarmayan, and Charles Serigny. It has various characteristics from the standpoint of architecture and construction and was built on the basis of modern architecture in the 1960s, together with a combination of glass and stone. The building is assigned to the library in three separate levels. The main components of the library consist of the reading room, the bookshelves are kept in the ground and on the first floor. Other existing rooms consist of the space allocated to the person responsible for the library, the audio and visual space, toilet, etc. In addition, a large part of the underground floor is reserved for the books and the paintings.
A combination of bronze and glass has been widely used in the interior architecture of the building. About 300 bright cylinders provide the necessary lighting for the library. This library was completely reorganized after twenty-five months of practical and hard work. This library consists of about 23,000 books, mainly in Farsi and French in the fields of literature and art history. The oldest of these books was printed in Paris in 1609 and the latest book of this collection has entered the library in January 1979.
Further parts of this library are a collection of works of art consisting of over 350 works and paintings. This work can show a part of contemporary art history, especially the modern tendencies of Iranian art in the 1950s-60s. This library was inaugurated in 1994 on the occasion of the commemoration of the Jubilee of Culture and World Museum Day.