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Shiraz Naqsh-e Rajab

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Naqsh-e Rajab
By:H.Shams

Stone cutting and etching and development of great structures was not all that prominent in the Sassanid period as in Achaemenid period. Maybe on the off chance that one looks at these two periods the Sassanian rank was far loftier than the Achaemenid period. By and by like their Achaemenid precursors (the Sassanians accepted to be the genuine descendents of Achaemenid Dynasty which had been toppled in 330 A.D. by Alexander) were intrigued to record critical occasions amid their rule, for example, triumph over adversaries, climb to the position of authority, crowning celebration, and showing the brilliance of their courts on the bosom of mountains in Iran and especially in Pars or Fars territory.

The greater part of these pictures are joined by engravings from Ardeshir I or Shapour I of the Sassanid Dynasty, however some are drained of engravings.

Except for inscriptions that have made due at Taqe Bostan close Salmas all the Sassanian pictures were made in Pars (Fars) region on the grounds that the Sassanians were particularly infatuated with their unique origin. Most the engravings in Pars are religious or typical in nature while the pictures and engravings in Taq-e Bostan are less religious and generally allude to private and imperial services and the wonderfulness of their courts. In any case, since the Sassanian lords trusted that sovereignty was an awesome blessing offered by Ahura Mazada, such a definition are regularly obvious in the lion's share of their engravings especially in Pars.

In this short article we trust we can acquaint with some degree the Sassanian pictures and engravings to intrigued perusers. In conclusions it must be noticed that these pictures and engravings are the most vital and most legitimate sources to follow the Iranian history and it is suitable to accomplish increasingly to save them.

Naqsh-e Rajab

Crowning liturgy Ceremony

The author of the Sassanian Dynasty has most presumably delegated himself in his central station at Anahita (Venus) Temple at Estakhr, Pars area, where Sassan, his precursor had been a stupendous mubid (Zoroastrian minister). It was in that sanctuary or at Naqsh-e Rajab valley close Estakhr that four hundred years after Ardeshir, the last Sassanian ruler delegated himself in light of the fact that Ardeshir and Shapour had engraved their crowning ordinance on the stone in that locale.

The service of blessing Ardeshir as lord of rulers by the amazing mubid is appeared in two spots - Naqsh-e Rajab and Naqsh-e Rostam - close to the holes where the Achaemenid rulers are covered. Along these lines as per Zareh the Naqsh-e Rajab etching was made before Naqsh-e Rajab. The function in Naqsh-e Rajab has not been completely protected in place and a hefty portion of its points of interest have been eradicated or are dark because of disintegration or breaking down of the stones.

The fantastic mubid is holding the illustrious ring at his correct hand and the imperial staff by his left hand and is introducing both these regal symbols to the lord. The ruler wears the ring on his correct hand and has raised his left hand and index finger as a token of regard and dutifulness. The fantastic mubid is wearing a creased brilliant crown. The lord in this picture looks like the photos engraved on his coins amid the start of his rule. He is gave with a long and square whiskers and short hair and the fantastic mubid and the lord and alternate identities in the picture are down on their feet. Zareh has recognized the substance of two kids in the space between the God and the lord.

Ardeshir is remaining on the left agree with a crown which appears to have been introduced overhead and the great mubid is remaining on the correct side and extending the crown to Ardeshir. The agents of the regal line is remaining as appeared from the imprints on his top and Shapour , Ardeshir's child and sovereign imperial is remaining next to the mubid which implies that he is the ruler's successor. Behind them one can observe the picture of Ahura Mazda and a popular woman which is either the mother or the main woman of Ardeshir. The picture is 2.5 meters high and 4.5 meters in length.

The King And His Courtiers

Here Shapour and his kids, his better half and the older folks of the court are mounted on stallions. The principal standing figure has a place with Hormozd, child of Ardeshir, which implies he is the crown ruler. Behind him Shapour Shahmishan, the other child of the lord is standing. The third picture has a place with Nersi, another child of Shapour and ruler of Turestan, Sekestan and India and behind Nersi one can see Bahram, another child of Shapour, the lord of Gilan, alongside Azar Nahid, Shapour's first woman. In the second crude and at a little lower rise Bidaksh and Hezarbod, the older folks of the court, are standing and behind them the agent of popular families and in addition armed force officers.

The points of interest of the pictures are connoted by the imprints on the tops they wear. The subjects are remaining as per their rank. It can be in truth said that the pictures in Naqsh-e Rajab precisely speak to the rundown and titles of the senior citizens of the imperial family in Shapour's engraving in the Zoroaster's main sanctuary. From the photo of Shapour Shahmishan one can follow the historical backdrop of etchings. An etching made around 262 years B.C. demonstrates that Shapour Shahmishan was not alive and Dinak, his better half, controlled his domain. This demonstrates the pictures were engraved before 262 A.D.

Perhaps arrangement of Hormozd Ardeshir as crown sovereign prompted the etching. On the bosom of Shapour's stallion there are engravings in Parthian, Middle Persian and Greek dialects. The Middle Persian content says:

"This is the picture of the fantastic mubid, the Mazda admirer Shapour, the lord of rulers of Iran and Atiran whose face took after that of God. He was child of Mazda admirer Ardeshir, the ruler of rulers of Iran whose face takes after God and was a descendent of Papak Shah."

The history and particulars of rule of Shapour 1 (272-243 A.D.):

In this picture just the picture of Shapour I and Hormozd Ardeshir are depicted with all their extraordinary components. On the correct side of the picture one can see the bust and composing by Mubid Kertir.

Crowning ordinance of Shapour I

The third picture in Naqsh-e Rajab is the crowning ordinance of Shapour I. Here the King is demonstrated accepting the imperial ring from the great mubid. This is an impersonation of the crowning ceremony of Ardeshir in Naqsh-e Rostam. Here likewise both the ruler and fantastic mubid are mounted on stallion and they both wear a similar dress. The main distinction is that in Shapour's engraving the great mubid is remaining on the left half of the ruler and the man fallen on prostrate on the ground in Ardeshir's picture is not appeared in Shapour's picture.

As specified before in this picture the lord is depicted on the correct side on a horseback extending his hand to get the regal ring from the excellent mubid. A Grecian and Middle Persian content is recorded on the bosom of the ruler's stallion. The Middle Persian content says:

"This is the picture of Mazda admirer, Shapour, the lord of Iran and Aniran whose face takes after that of God. He is child of Mazda admirer ruler Ardeshir, the lord of rulers and a descendent of Papak Shah."

The parts of the ruler's crown are not recognized. Maybe in this picture the lord is not depicted with the crown of Shapour I. In this manner there is a complexity between the illustrious ring and the engraving on the bosom of the stallion.

From the technique for face drawing this picture nearly takes after the crowning ordinance of Bahram I in Bishapour. Such a look like is not just noticeable in the mix of various parts, for example, the ruler's and excellent mubid's dress and the ligaments of the steed however even in little points of interest, for example, the seat and accessories and exceptional type of the illustrious ring and ribbon.

Such likeness demonstrates that these two pictures have been engraved in the meantime. In spite of the fact that I can't assume the liability to comprehend the particulars of the ruler's picture, I wish to remind the peruser that I don't think the etching was made in 243 A.D. at the point when Shapour I was delegated.

Despite what might be expected it appears that this picture has a place with the finish of the rule of Shapour I or the govern of Hormozd Ardeshir. In such a case one may state that the picture was engraved after Shapour's demise.

In this picture the substance of the ruler has been seriously harmed and the points of interest can't be obviously recognized. The fantastic mubid is wearing a creased crown and his twisting hair is unmistakable outside his crown. The woven hair falls on the neck and shoulder and his shroud is attached to his trunk by fancy fastenings under the pearl accessory and the pants over his leg conveys delicate plaits.

The neck and bosom of the steed is enhanced by round pictures as chains and the previously mentioned rectangular plate is appeared before the steed's legs.

Crowning Ceremony

In this picture Ardeshir is appeared on the correct favor the illustrious crown which appears to have been introduced overhead and the fabulous mubid is remaining on the left side and is extending the regal ring to Ardeshir. A fire brazier is set between the lord and the great mubid. Behind Ardeshir the delegate of his line is remaining with a fan which holds over the lord's head. Shapour is wearing the characteristic of crown ruler and two senior citizens wearing octagonal tops with no emblem are remaining adjacent to Shapour.

The picture is identified with the rule of Ardeshir from 225 to 243 A.D. furthermore, from the exceptional pictures and confronts one can perceive that exclusive Ardeshir and the amazing mubid take after each other.

Scene of Battle (Height: 4.5 meters, Length 23 meters),

In this picture which is the biggest symbol getting by from the Sassanid period three scenes are depicted:

a. Ardeshir is wearing a substantial metal defensive layer, across the board piece, with a lance in his grasp and Ardavan bears similar imprints which is appeared on his top in Naqsh-e Rostam.

b. This picture has been crushed and it is hard to settle its date. Here the ruler is wearing his battling head protector. The head protector looks like a little crown encompassed by a thick hair. Some portion of the bits of the picture.

c. The military administrator is wearing a substantial metal protective layer and head protector. It is hard to decide the date of this picture on the grounds that the ruler has not been depicted with his official crown but rather with a head protector. This top takes after those which are imprinted on coins (a little crown with a considerable measure of hair around it). From the perspective of state of the trim, strategy for dressing and particularly the ribbon of the facial hair, this face looks like the etching in Naqsh-e Rostam.

The presence of this picture which depicts a scene of fight looks like the etching in Naqsh-e Rostam. In this scene likewise the triumph of Ardeshir over Ardavan has been portrayed. In the interim Ardavan's imperial imprints are appeared in both pictures. From every one of these elements once can finish up the scene of fight has a place with the finish of Ardeshir's rule.

All craftsmanship specialists concur that the picture was engraved toward the start of Sassanian time. One can turn to the History of Tabari to portray the subtle elements of the picture. In that book it is said that in a man to individual fight amongst Ardeshir and Ardavan the fifth close Hormozdgan the last was killed and the picture has been obviously engraved to demonstrate that scene of fight.

The Final picture is Kartir

Kartir Hangirpe (Karder or Kerdir) was an exceedingly powerful Zoroastrian devout minister of the late third century CE who filled in as counselor to no less than three Sassanid rulers.

Kartir was most likely instrumental in advancing the reason for Mazdaism (rather than Zurvanism, the other - now wiped out - branch of Zoroastrianism]), for in his engraving at Naqsh-e Rajab, Kartir makes plain that he has "chose" that "there is a paradise and there is a damnation", in this manner putting himself inconsistent with the standards of (fatalistic) Zurvanism. Regardless, it was amid the rule of Shapur I (r. 241-272) - to whom Kartir was initially named consultant - that Zurvanism seems to have created as a clique, and this disagreement remains an issue of academic debate. A few researchers in this way finish up, inconsistent with what has been expressed over, that Kartir "himself held Zurvanite convictions".

At the same time, Kartir was additionally a critical constrain in a rebellious development that would bring about the loss of support of the sanctum cliques, a religious custom outsider to Indo-Iranian types of love that was acquired rather from the Babylonians; altar factions had been initiated six centuries before by Artaxerxes II and utilized as an instrument for expense accumulation. It was amid Kartir's chance as esteemed cleric that the places of worship were - by law - stripped of their statues, and afterward either surrendered or changed over into flame sanctuaries (see Atar).

As per his own particular engravings, Kartir rose to control amid the rule of Shapur I (r. 240-270), to whom he filled in as guide and went with on voyages. Shapur's child Hormizd I (r. 270-271) designated Kartir Moabadan-Moabad, 'minister of clerics', a position Kartir savagely used to advance his own particular position and to rebuff bring down positioning clerics whose sentiments he considered in opposition to his own. Under resulting lords, Kartir required the abuse of disciples of different religions, specifically Manichaeans, whose prophet Mani was sentenced to death by Bahram I (r. 271–274), likely on the affectation of Kartir and despite the fact that Shapur I had beforehand been a supporter of the prophet. The mistreatment stopped amid the rule of Narseh (r. 293–303), most likely after the passing of the consecrated minister.

Kartir's engravings are on the Ka'ba-i Zartosht (at Naqsh-e Rustam) and at Naqsh-e Rajab.

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