The official language of Iran, Persian (also called Farsi) is a member of the Indo-Iranian group of languages constituting the easternmost major branch of the Indo-European language family. Historically, the is language is divided into Old Persian, Middle Persian (Sasanid or Parthian Pahlavi), and Modern Persian.
Iran Persian Poetry
Old Persian was spoken until approximately the 3rd century B.C. Middle Persian was spoken from the 3rd century B.C. to about the 9th century A.D.A notable feature of Modern Persian is that it has changed very little over the thousand years or more of its existence as a literary language. Thus, the poems of Rudaki, the first notable Persian poet, who died in the year 940 A.D., are perfectly intelligible to the modern reader. Modern Persian grammar is much simpler than its ancestral forms. Modern Persian has no system of case inflections.
Possession is shown by the addition of a special suffix (called ezafeh) . to the possessive noun. Verbs retain a set of personal endings, but a series of prefixes and infixes (word elements inserted within a word), as well as auxiliary verbs, are used instead of a single complex inflectional system to mark tense, mood, voice, and the negative. Persian vocabulary was heavily influenced by Arabic, which for a long time was the language of the learned and still remains the language of the religion. In its turn, Persian had a significant influence in neighboring lands. In Indian courts, Persian language and poetry was the vogue with the ruling classes. By fusing with Hindi, Persian gave rise to the Urdu language. Persian also influenced the language and literature of Turkey. It provided the form and style of Turkish verse, which also contained many words borrowed from Persian vocabulary.
Persian Literature Persian literature has a number of noteworthy characteristics, the most striking of which is the exceptional prominence of poetry. Until quite recently, prose works were confined mostly to sciences, and poetry formed the chief outlet for artistic expression. Classical Persian literature was produced almost entirely under royal patronage, hence the frequency of panegyric verse. An influence of at least equal strength was religion, in particular Sufism, which inspired the remarkably high proportion of mystical poetry.