Art of Iran

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Islamic Art and Architecture 
In any discussion of Islamic art it must always be remembered that the artistic tradition of the Muslim faith developed not only over a long period of time beginning with the Hegira in 622 AD, but also over a very wide geographical area extending from Spain and Morocco to Central Asia, India and Indonesia. Given these conditions, it would have been surprising for a single, homogenous artistic tradition to emerge.
The centre of Islamic religious life is the mosque, or masjed in Arabic, literally the ‘place of prostration’. The first mosque, which served as a prototype, was the house of the Prophet himself in Medina. It was composed of a central courtyard with a portico of palm trunks along one wall supporting a roof of palm fronds.   
 Damghan.Tarikhane Mosque
The mausoleum, or imâmzâdeh, is another major type of Islamic construction in Iran. Although the veneration of the saints is expressly denounced in the Koran,a number of commemorative monuments were built over important burial places, particularly those of Shi’ite saints, around the ninth and tenth centuries. In Iran and Central Asia1 further constructions commemorated local rulers, Biblical figures, Companions of the Prophet, scholars and even popular heroes. 
The madresseh is a place of higher religious education. At first privately run and of modest size, the first real madresseh were founded in the 11th century, when they became political institutions under state control and served to fix the Sunni ortho-doxy-the first Shi’ite madresseh was founded around 1050 at Najaf, in Iraq,
With the importance that the dome and the vault rapidly gained in Islamic architecture, it soon became necessary to devise a solution to the problem of the transition zone between the square chamber and the dome above it, namely from a square plan to a circular one. The basic solution depended on the squinch, an arch set at an angle across each corner of the building.
Colour did not play a major decorative role in the earliest mosques. Instead, much emphasis was placed on using the building materials themselves, most commonly brick, to create a decorative effect. In its simplest form, this technique consisted of placing the bricks alternately on their short or long sides to create zigzag motifs. At Marâgheh and Kharaqân, a more sophisticated use of bricks of different sizes, some of with a solely decorative function, gives extremely successful and more complex results.
During the Seljuq period (1038-1157), the use of coloured tiles on buildings gradually became more common, although at the outset they served mainly to accentuate certain elements of the interlaced geometric designs created in brick. It has been suggested that the early development of colour was an attempt to make the Koranic inscriptions on the exterior of mosques more legible.
Carpet weaving is by far the most widespread handicraft in Iran; it is also the best known one abroad. The origins of the carpet date back to antiquity: texts and carv-ings tell us that the ancient Sumerians and Egyptians owned carpets, as did the Achaemenians in Persia. The oldest known knotted carpet was found at Pasyryk in the Altai (Siberia) and is thought to have been made in Persia around the fifth century BC.
 Persian art is best known in the West for its carpets
Calligraphy occupies a privileged place in Islamic culture. From the moment when it became destined to reproduce and transmit the Word of God contained in the Koran, it acquired a sacred function. But very rapidly it was also employed for decorative ends in secular as well as religious contexts. Metal bowls and vases, for example, are often decorated with a combination of floral scrolls and inscriptions which quote the verses of a well-known poet, express wishes of happiness and prosperity or list the titles of a ruler.
A description and illustration of the marvelous varieties and exquisite harmonies of Iran’s artistic life- long work of the great American scholar Arthur Upham pope. It certainly induces a spirit of humility in anyone tackling the subject , however, here, in this travel guide, we propose to do no more than give some pointers to the main features of Persian achievement, which may be useful to the traveler or foreign resident before he plunges into whatever branch of the subject takes his fancy most.
 The Art of Achaemenids
Carpets and Kilims  
It would indeed be hard to dispute the Iranian claim to have produced the most elaborate, the most decorative, the most valuable, and the ,most superbly assured carpets, which are considered as our cultural exports in the world. Because of the lack of furniture in most Iranian houses, particularly in rural areas, carpets are far more than just floor coverings. It is still partly true to say that Iranians, Particularly in villages, display their wealth on the floor and- because the most valuable carpets are certainly not for walking over- on the wall.
 women carpet weavig
The oldest extant Persian writing is found in Persian inscriptions, but it is only of historical interest. The first major literary work are the scriptures of Zoroastrianism and the Pahlavi writing of Parthian and Sassanian Iran, when there was certainly an active literary life. But all that we know of is consists of a few indirect references and same brief works in middle Persian or Pahlavi which were preserved , along with religious books , in the Zoroastrian communities. Collection of maxims, a historical romance (The book of the Exploits of Ardashir), and the fragments of an epic(The Memorial of Zarir).
 Hafez Tomb in shiraz

 Qahveh Khanehei painting
As an Iranian painting style combined with European techniques ( oil and color on was and canvass ) . It was about eighty years ago that this method was formed among lay people. The characteristic of this art is its popularity and distance from court arts.

Unknown artist who had some experiences in painting on tiles, were influenced by the atmosphere and ambience of Qahveh Khanehs , along with Shahnameh–Khani ... 

ABSTRACT Finding a place for residence where one feels comfortable is one of the fundamental needs of humans and decorative elements are one of the factors that give entity to Iranian architecture over history. Looking at the Iranian traditional architecture, the especial role and place of house as an important element in architecture is revealed.









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