|The Buyid dynasty in 970|
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyid dynasty of Daylaman in Gilan was a Shī'ah dynasty of Daylimite or Kurdish origin of Daylaman, known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids. They founded a confederation that controlled most of today's Iran and Iraq in the tenth and eleventh centuries. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, shortly before the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East.
The founders of the Būyidenbundes were "Alī ibn Būyah and his two younger brothers al-Hassan and Aḥmad, the sons of Buya, a fisherman from Lahjan in Tabaristan." Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, Alī was able to create an army To defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad, named Yaqut, in 934. Over the next nine years, the three brothers took control of the rest of the Abbas Abbot, while accepting the titular authority of the Caliph in Baghdad, the Būyid -Herrscher an effective control of the state.
The first decades of the Būyid League were characterized by great territorial gains. In addition to the Peace and Jibal conquered in the 930s and central Iraq, which were submitted in 945, the Būyids Ray (943), Kermān (967), Oman (967), Jazīra (979), Ṭabaristān (980) And Gorgan (981). After that, the Būyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the Confederation gradually breaking apart, and local dynasties under their rule which became de facto independent.
The approximate century of the Būyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history, sometimes referred to as the "Iranian Intermezzo," as it is an interlude between the rule of "Abbayid- Arabia, and the Seljuq Turks, in fact, as Dailamite Iranians, the Būyids deliberately restored symbols and practices of the Persian Sassānid dynasty, in fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla, they used the ancient Sassanid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه), literally "king of kings".
|The Buyid dynasty in 970|
The Buyid League was divided and ruled by several members of the dynasty. In 945, Amir Mu'izz al-Dawla captured Baghdad and gained the nominal control over the Caliphs. The title used by the Buyid rulers was amīr, which means "governor" or "prince".As a rule, one of the Amirs would be recognized as having the other; This person would use the title of amīr al-umarā or senior amīr. Although the older amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he usually had no significant control outside his own amirate; Each Amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amīrs used the Sassanid title of Shāhanshāh. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers divide their land among their sons.
Iranian Būyid Daylamite soldier
The Būyid army consisted of their Dawamite Iranians, who served as foot soldiers, and the Turkish cavalry, which had played a prominent role in the Abbasid military. The Dailamites and the Turks often argued in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army. In order to compensate their soldiers, the Būyids often distributed the iqtā or the rights to a percentage of the tax revenues from a province, although the practice of the services was often used.
Like most Daylamites, the Būyids were originally Zaydī or Fiver Shī'as. After the takeover of power in Iran and Iraq, they began to lean closer to the Twelver Shī'ism, possibly due to political considerations. In fact, the Būyids rarely tried to force a certain religious point of view on their subjects, except in matters where it was politically useful. The Sunnī 'Abbāsids kept the caliphate, although all secular power was withdrawn from them. In order to prevent the tensions between the Shī'a and the Sunnis from turning to government, the Būyid Amirs have occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from every sect.
|Jurjir Mosque Isfahan|
During the middle of the 11th century the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghasnavid and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, before a rebellion of his Dailami troops in Ray, asked for support from Mahmud of Ghazna. When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he dismissed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid governor, and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.In 1055, Tughrul captured Baghdad, the seat of the Caliphate, and expelled the last of the Buyid rulers. Like the Buyids, the Seljuks held the Abbasid caliphate as a titular ruler.
Buyids were Shia and were called Twelver Shia. However, it is more likely that she began as Zaydi Shia. As the reason for this reversal of Zaydis to Twelver Moojen Momen suggests that since the buyids were no descendants of Ali, the first Shia Imam Zaydis Shi'ism doctrine would have called them to an Imam of Ali's family to install. For this reason, buyids bought in the direction of Twelver Shia ', which slandered her imam was more politically attractive to her.
Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions.
Daylamids of Fars
• Ali b. Buya (Imad al-Dawla) 934–949
• Fana Khusraw ('Adud al-Dawla) 949–983
• Shirzil b. Fana Khusraw (Sharaf al-Dawla) 983–989
• Marzuban b. Fana Khusraw (Samsam al-Dawla) 989–998
• Firuz b. Fana Khusraw (Baha' al-Dawla) 998–1012
• Abu Shuja' b. Firuz (Sultan al-Dawla) 1012–1024
• Abu Kalijar Marzuban b. Abu Shuja' (Imad al-Din) 1024–1048
• Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun 1048–1062