The Cyrus the Great Cylinder
Edited by: Shapour Ghasemi
The Cyrus the Great Cylinder is the primary contract of right of countries on the planet. It is a heated earth cyliner in Akkadian dialect with cuneiform script. This barrel was unearthed in 1879 by the Assyro-British excavator Hormuzd Rassam in the establishments of the Esagila (the Marduk sanctuary of Babylon) and is kept today in the British Museum in London.
Cyrus the Great Cylinder, The First Charter of Rights of Nations
On October 12 (Julian timetable; October 7 by the Gregorian date-book) 539 BC, Achaemanid armed force with no contention entered the city of Babylon. Cyrus the Great himself, on October 29, entered the city, expecting the titles of "lord of Babylon, ruler of Sumer and Akkad, ruler of the four corners of the world". Cyrus The Great, on this chamber, portrays how he vanquishes the old city of Babylon and how his powerful armed force in peace walked into the city; his claim that he entered the city calmly bolsters a similar proclamation in the Chronicle of Nabonidus. The last lord of Babylon, Nabonidus, is viewed as a dictator with odd religious thoughts, which causes Marduk, supporter divinity of the city of Babylon to intercede. Cyrus views himself as picked by a preeminent god, is affirmed by Second Isaiah, the parts 40-55 of the Biblical book of Isaiah. The Cyrus Cylinder then was put under the dividers of "Esagila" as an establishment store, taking after a Mesopotamian convention.
Zol-qarnain in the Quran is Cyrus the Great
There were three fundamental premises in the declarations of the Cyrus Cylinder: the political formulization of racial, etymological, and religious uniformity, slaves and all extradited people groups were to be permitted to come back to home; and every single annihilated sanctuary were to be reestablished.
In 1971, the Cyrus Cylinder was portrayed as the world's first sanction of human rights, and it was converted into every one of the six authority U.N. languages.A imitation of the barrel is kept at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City in the second floor foyer, between the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council chambers.
Entries in the content of chamber have been translated as communicating Cyrus' regard for mankind, and as advancing a type of religious resilience and flexibility; and as aftereffect of his liberal and others conscious approaches, Cyrus picked up the mind-boggling backing of his subjects.
The Cyrus Cylinder is by all account not the only reason that the Cyrus legacy is appreciated. As indicated by Professor Richard Frye:
"So, the figure of Cyrus has made due all through history as more than an awesome man who established a realm. He turned into the exemplification of the immense qualities expected of a ruler in days of yore, and he accepted courageous elements as a victor who was tolerant and charitable and also overcome and brave. His identity as observed by the Greeks affected them and Alexander the Great, and, as the convention was transmitted by the Romans, might be considered to impact our reasoning even at this point."
Pasargadae Palaces and Cyrus Tomb
The span of Cyrus Cylinder is 23 cm long, 11 cm wide with 40+ lines of composing (albeit broken) and it is dated 539 BCE.
Interpretation of the content on the Cyrus Cylinder
Interpretation by Irving Finkel
Right hand Keeper, Department of the Middle East
English Museum where the Cyrus the Great Cylinder Is Housed.
[When ... Mar]duk, ruler of the entire of paradise and earth, the ....... who, in his ..., ruins his .......
[........................................................................]broad ? in knowledge, ...... who inspects} (?) the wor]ld quarters (locales)
[..............................................................… ] his [first]born (=Belshazzar), a low individual was placed responsible for his nation,
be that as it may, [..................................................................................] he set [a (… ) counter]feit over them.
He ma[de] a fake of Esagil, [and .....… .......]... for Ur and whatever is left of the clique urban areas.
Rituals unseemly to them, [impure] fo[od-offerings … .......................................................] insolent [… ] were every day prattled, and, as an affront,
he conveyed the day by day offerings to a stop; he inter[fered with the ceremonies and] established [… ....] inside the havens. In his psyche, respectful dread of Marduk, ruler of the divine beings, arrived at an end.
He did yet more underhanded to his city consistently; … his [people ................… ], he brought destroy on them all by a burden without help.
Enlil-of-the-divine beings turned out to be to a great degree irate at their dissensions, and [… ] their region. The divine beings who lived inside them cleared out their holy places,
irate that he had made (them) go into Shuanna (Babylon). Ex[alted Marduk, Enlil-of-the-Go]ds, yielded. He altered his opinion about every one of the settlements whose asylums were in remains,
what's more, the number of inhabitants in the place that is known for Sumer and Akkad who had turned out to resemble cadavers, and had compassion for them. He investigated and checked every one of the nations,
looking for his preferred upright lord. He grasped the hand of Cyrus, lord of the city of Anshan, and called him by his name, announcing him so anyone might hear for the authority over all of everything.
He made the place where there is Guti and all the Median troops prostrate themselves at his feet, while he shepherded in equity and honesty the dark headed individuals
whom he had put under his care. Marduk, the immense master, who sustains his kin, saw with joy his fine deeds and genuine heart,
furthermore, requested that he ought to go to Babylon He had him take the street to Tintir (Babylon), and, similar to a companion and sidekick, he strolled next to him.
His endless troops whose number, similar to the water in a waterway, couldn't be checked, were walking completely outfitted next to him.
He had him enter without battling or fight directly into Shuanna; he spared his city Babylon from hardship. He gave over to him Nabonidus, the ruler who did not fear him.
Every one of the general population of Tintir, of all Sumer and Akkad, nobles and governors, bowed down before him and kissed his feet, celebrating over his authority and their countenances shone.
The master through whose help all were saved from death and who spared them all from trouble and hardship, they favored him sweetly and commended his name.
- - - -
I am Cyrus, lord of the universe, the immense ruler, the intense lord, ruler of Babylon, ruler of Sumer and Akkad, lord of the four fourth of the world,
child of Cambyses, the immense lord, ruler of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the colossal lord, ki[ng of the ci]ty of Anshan, relative of Teispes, the considerable ruler, lord of the city of Anshan,
the never-ending seed of sovereignty, whose rule Bel (Marduk)and Nabu adore, and with whose authority, to their bliss, they concern themselves. When I went as harbinger of peace i[nt]o Babylon
I established my sovereign living arrangement inside the royal residence in the midst of festivity and celebrating. Marduk, the colossal master, offered on me as my predetermination the considerable charitableness of one who adores Babylon, and I consistently searched him out in stunningness.
My unlimited troops were walking serenely in Babylon, and the entire of [Sumer] and Akkad had nothing to fear.
I looked for the wellbeing of the city of Babylon and every one of its asylums. Concerning the number of inhabitants in Babylon [… , w]ho as though without div[ine intention] had persevered through a burden not proclaimed for them,
I calmed their exhaustion; I liberated them from their bonds(?). Marduk, the immense ruler, celebrated at [my good] deeds,
also, he articulated a sweet gift over me, Cyrus, the lord who fears him, and over Cambyses, the child [my] issue, [and over] my everything my troops,
that we may live joyfully in his nearness, in prosperity. At his lifted up summon, all rulers who sit on positions of authority,
from each quarter, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, the individuals who occupy [remote distric]ts (and) the rulers of the place where there is Amurru who live in tents, every one of them,
brought their profound tribute into Shuanna, and kissed my feet. From [Shuanna] I sent back to their places to the city of Ashur and Susa,
Akkad, the place that is known for Eshnunna, the city of Zamban, the city of Meturnu, Der, to the extent the fringe of the place where there is Guti - the havens over the stream Tigris - whose hallowed places had before turned out to be run down,
the divine beings who lived in that, and made changeless havens for them. I gathered together the greater part of their kin and returned them to their settlements,
also, the divine forces of the place that is known for Sumer and Akkad which Nabonidus – to the rage of the ruler of the divine beings – had brought into Shuanna, at the order of Marduk, the considerable master,
I returned them unharmed to their cells, in the asylums that make them cheerful. May every one of the divine beings that I came back to their asylums,
consistently before Bel and Nabu, request a long life for me, and say my great deeds, and say to Marduk, my master, this: "Cyrus, the lord who fears you, and Cambyses his child,
may they be the provisioners of our places of worship until inaccessible (?) days, and the number of inhabitants in Babylon call endowments on my authority. I have empowered every one of the terrains to live in peace.
Consistently I expanded by [… ge]ese, two ducks and ten pigeons the [former offerings] of geese, ducks and pigeons.
I endeavored to reinforce the barriers of the divider Imgur-Enlil, the immense mass of Babylon,
what's more, [I completed] the quay of heated block on the bank of the canal which a prior ruler had bu[ilt however not com]pleted its work.
[I … which did not encompass the city] outside, which no prior ruler had manufactured, his workforce, the levee [from his territory, in/int]o Shuanna.
[… .......................................................................with bitum]en and heated block I manufactured over again, and [completed] its [work].
[… ...........................................................] extraordinary [doors of cedarwood] with bronze cladding,
[and I installed] every one of their entryways, limit sections and entryway fittings with copper parts. [… .......................]
The size of Cyrus Cylinder is 23 cm long, 11 cm wide with 40+ lines of writing (although broken) and it is dated 539 BCE.
(Rogers 1912: 380-84)
(Adapted from Rogers 1912: 380-84)
|1||[. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]-ni-Šu||[. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .] his troops|
|2||[. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]-ki-ib-ra-tim||[. . . . . . . . . . . . four] quarters of the world|
|3||[. . .]-ka gal ma tu-û i Š -Šak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti- Šu||[. . .] a weakling was established as ruler over his land|
|4||Ši-[. . . . . . . . . . ta-am]-Ši-li ú- Ša-aŠ-ki-na si-ru-Š u-un||and [. . . . .] a similar one he appointed over them,|
|5||ta-am-Ši-li É-sag-ila i-te-[. . . . . . -ti]m a-na Uriki ù si-it-ta-tim ma-ha-za||like Esagila he made [. . .] to Ur and the rest of the cities,|
|6||pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti- Šu-nu ta-[. . . . . l]i û-mi- Šá-am-ma id-di-ni-ib-bu-ub ù ana na-ak-ri-tim||a command dishonouring them [. . . . .] he planned daily and in enmity,|
|7||sat-tuk-ku ù-Šab-ti-li ú-ad-[di . . . . . . iŠ] -tak-ka-an ki-rib ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha iluMarduk Šar ilâni [Šá]-qi- Še a-Šu-uŠ- Šu||he caused the daily offering to cease; he appointed [. . .] he established within the city. The worship of Marduk, king of the gods [ . . . ]|
|8||li-mu-ut-ti ali-Šu [i-te]-ni-ip-pu-uŠ û-mi- Šá-am-ma na-[. . . . niŠe ] i-na ab-Ša-a-ni la ta-ap-Š ú-úh -tim ú-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in||he showed hostility toward his city daily
[. . .] his people; he brought all of them to ruin through servitude without rest.
|9||a-na ta-zi-im-ti-Ši-na iluEllil lililani iz-zi-iŠ i-gu-ug-ma [. . .] ki-su-úr-Šú-un ilâni a- Ši-ib lib-bi-Š ú-nu i-zi-bu ad-ma-an- Šú-un||On account of their complaints, the lords of the gods became furiously angry and left their land; the gods, who dwelt among them, left their homes,|
|10||i-na ug-ga-ti Šá ú- Še-ri-bi a-na ki-rib Babili ilu Marduk ti-[. . . .] li-sa-ah-ra a-na nap-har da-ád-mi Šá in-na-du-ú Šú-bat-su-un||in anger over his bringing into Babylon. Marduk [. . .] to all the dwelling places, which had become ruins,|
|11||ù niŠe mât Šú-me-ri ù Ak-ka-dikiŠ a i-mu-ú Ša-lam-ta-aŠ ú-sa-ah-hi-ir ka- [. . . .]- Ši ir-ta-Š i ta-a-a-ra kul-lat ma-ta-a-ta ka-li- Ši-na i-h i-it ib-ri-e-Šu||and the people of Sumer and Akkad, who were like corpses [. . . .] he turned and granted mercy. In all lands everywhere|
|12||iŠ-te-'-e-ma ma-al-ki i- Ša-ru bi-bil lib-bi Šá it-ta-ma-a h qa-tu-uŠ-Šú m Ku-ra-aŠŠar ali An- Šá-an it-ta-bi ni-bi-it-su a-na ma-li-ku-tim kul-la-ta nap- h ar iz-zak-ra Šú-[ma- Š u]||he searched; he looked through them and sought a righteous prince after his own heart, whom he took by the hand. He called Cyrus, king of Anshan, by name; he appointed him to lordship over the whole world.|
|13||mâtQu-ti-i gi-mir Um-man Man-da ú-ka-an-ni- Ša a-na Š e-pi-Šu ni Še sal-mat qaqqaduduŠa ú- Š á-ak-Ši-du ka-ta-a-Šu||The land of Qutu, all the Umman-manda, he cast down at his feet. The black-headed people, whom he gave his hands to conquer,|
|14||i-na ki-it-tim ú mi-Š a-ru iŠ-te-ni-'e-Ši-na-a-tim iluMarduk belu rabu ta-ru-ú niŠ e- Šu ip-Še-e-ti Šá dam-qa-a-ta ù lib-ba-Šú i-Šá-ra ha-di-i Š ip-pa-al-li-is||he took them in justice and righteousness. Marduk, the great lord, looked joyously on the caring for his people, on his pious works and his righteous heart.|
|15||a-na ali-Šú Bab-ilani ki a-la-ak-Šú ik-bi ú- Š a-as-bi-it-su-ma har-ra-nu Babili ki-ma ib-ri ú tap-pi-e it-tal-la-ka i-da-a-Šu||To his city, Babylon, he caused him to go; he made him take the road to Babylon, going as a friend and companion at his side.|
|16||um-ma-ni-Šu rap- Ša-a-tim Šá ki-ma me-e nari la ú-ta-ad-du-ú ni-ba-Šú-un kakke-Š ú-nu sa-an-du-ma i-Šá-ad-di- ha i-da-a- Šú||His numerous troops, in unknown numbers, like the waters of a river, marched armed at his side.|
|17||ba-lu qab-li ù ta-ha-zi ú- Še-ri-ba-aŠ ki-rib Babili ala- Šú Bab-ilaniki i-ti-ir i-na Š ap-Šá-ki m, iluNabu-na'id Šarru la pa-li-hi-Š ú ú-ma-al-la-a qa-tu-u Š- Šu||Without battle and conflict, he permitted him to enter Babylon. He spared his city, Babylon, a calamity. Nabonidus, the king, who did not fear him, he delivered into his hand.|
|18||niŠe Babili ka-li- Šú-nu nap-har mâtŠ ú-me-ri u Ak-ka-diki ru-bi-e ù Š ak-ka-nak-ka Šá-pal-Š ú ik-mi-sa ú-na-aŠ -Š i-qu Še-pu-u Š- Šú ih-du-ú a-na Š arru-ú-ti- Šú im-mi-ru pa-nu-uŠ - Šú-un||All the people of Babylon, Sumer, and Akkad, princes and governors, fell down before him and kissed his feet. They rejoiced in his sovereignty; their faces shone.|
|19||be-lu Šá i-na tu-kul-ti- Šá ú-bal-li-tu mi-tu-ta-an i-na bu-ta-qu ú pa-ki-e ig-mi-lu kul-la-ta-an ta-bi-iŠ ik-ta-ar-ra-bu- Šu iŠ-tam-ma-ru zi-ki-ir-Š ú||The lord, who by his power brings the dead to life, who amid destruction and injury had protected them, they joyously blessed him, honoring his name.|
|20||a-na-ku mKu-ra-aŠ Šar kiŠ-Š at Šarru rabu Šarru dan-nu Š ar Babili Šar mât Š ú-me-ri ú Ak-ka-di Šar kib-ra-a-ti ir-bit-tim||I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world,|
|21||mar mKa-am-bu-zi-ia Šarru rabu Šar alu An-Š á-an mar mari mKu-ra-aŠ Šarru rabu Šar alu An-Š á-an ŠA.BAL.BAL m Š i-iŠ-pi-iŠ Š arru rabu Šar alu An-Š a-an||son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, king of the city of Anshan; great-grandson of Teispes, the great king, king of the city of Anshan;|
|22||ziru da-ru-ú Ša Šarru-ú-tu Ša iluBel u ilu Nabu ir-a-mu pa-la-a-Š ú a-na tu-ub lib-bi- Šú-nu i h-Ši-ha Šarru-ut-su e-nu-ma a-na ki-rib Babili e-ru-bu sa-li-mi-i Š||eternal seed of royalty whose rule Bel and Nabu love, in whose administration they rejoice in their heart. When I made my triumphal entrance into Babylon,|
|23||i-na ul-si ù ri- Š á-a-tim i-na ekal ma-al-ki ar-ma-a Š ú-bat be-lu-tim iluMarduk belu rabu lib-bi ri-it-pa- Š ú Šá mare Babili ú . . . an-ni-ma û-mi- Šam a-Š e-'-a pa-la-ah- Šú||I took up my lordly residence in the royal palace with joy and rejoicing; Marduk, the great lord, moved the noble heart of the residents of Babylon to me, while I gave daily attention to his worship.|
|24||um-ma-ni-ia rap-Ša-tim i-na ki-rib Babili i-Šá-ad-di-ha Šú-ul-ma-niŠ nap-har mat [ Šu-me-ri] ù Akkadiki mu-gal-[l]i-tim ul ú- Šar-Ši||My numerous troops marched peacefully into Babylon. In all Sumer and Akkad I permitted no enemy to enter.|
|25||dannat Babili ù kul-lat ma-ha-zi- Šu i-na Šà-li-im-tim a Š -te-'-e mare Babi[li . . .] ki ma-la lib-[. . .]-ma ab- Š a-a-ni la si-ma-ti-Šu-nu Š ú-bat-su-un||The needs of Babylon and of all its cities I gladly attended to. The people of Babylon [and . . .], and the shameful yoke was removed from them. Their dwellings,|
|26||an-hu-ut-su-un ú-pa-a Š -Ši-ha ú-Š á-ap-ti-ir sa-ar-ba- Šu-nu a-na ip- Še-e-ti-[ia] iluMarduk belu rabu ú-ih-di-e-ma||which had fallen, I restored. I cleared out their ruins. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced in my pious deeds, and|
|27||a-na ia-a-ti mKu-ra-a ŠŠarru pa-li-ih-Š u ù mKa-am-bu-zi-ia mari si-it lib-bi-[ia ù a]-na nap- har um-ma-ni-ia||graciously blessed me, Cyrus, the king who worships him, and Cambyses, my own son, and all my troops,|
|28||da-am-ki-iŠ ik-ru-ub-ma i-na Ša-lim-tim ma-har-Š a ta-bi-iŠ ni-it-ta-['-id i-lu-ti- Šu] sir-ti nap-har Šarri a- Ši-ib parakke||while we, before him, joyously praised his exalted godhead. All the kings dwelling in palaces,|
|29||Ša ka-li-i Š kib-ra-a-ta iŠ-tu tam-tim e-li-tim a-di tam-tim Šap-li-tim a-Ši-ib kul-[. . . .] Šar-ra-ni mati A-mur-ri-i a- Ši-ib kuŠ-ta-ri ka-li-Š u-un||of all the quarters of the earth, from the Upper to the Lower sea dwelling [. . .] all the kings of the Westland dwelling in tents|
|30||bi-lat-su-nu ka-bi-it-tim ú-bi-lu-nim-ma ki-ir-ba Babili ú-na-aŠ-Š i-qu Še-pu-ú-a iŠ-tu [. . . .] a-di alu A ŠŠurki ù Šu-Š anki||brought me their heavy tribute, and in Babylon kissed my feet. From [. . .] to Asshur and Susa,|
|31||A-ga-deki mâtu E Š -nu-nak aluZa-am-ba-an aluMe-túr-nu Deriki a-di pa-at mât Qu-ti-i ma-ha-za [ Šá e-bir]-ti nâruDiqlat Š á i Š-tu ap-na-ma na-du-ú Šú-bat-su-un||Agade, Eshnunak, Zamban, Meturnu, Deri, with the territory of the land of Qutu, the cities on the other side of the Tigris, whose sites were of ancient foundation—|
|32||ilâni a-Ši-ib lib-bi- Šu-nu a-na aŠ-ri-Šú-nu ú-tir-ma ú-Šar-ma-a Š ú-bat da-er-a-ta kul-lat niŠe- Šu-nu ú-pa-ah -hi-ra-am-ma ú-te-ir da-ád-mi- Šu-un||the gods, who resided in them, I brought back to their places, and caused them to dwell in a residence for all time|
|33||ù ilâni mât Šú-me-ri ù AkkadikiŠ á m, iluNabu-na'id a-na ug-ga-tim bel ilâni ú- Še-ri-bi a-na ki-rib Babili i-na ki-bi-ti iluMarduk belu rabû i-na Š á-li-im-tim||And the gods of Sumer and Akkad—whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into Babylon—by the command of Marduk, the great lord,|
|34||i-na maŠ-ta-ki- Šu-nu ú-Še-Ši-ib Šú-ba-at tu-ub lib-bi kul-la-ta ilâni Š a ú-Še-ri-bi a-na ki-ir-bi ma-ha-zi- Šu-un||I caused them to take up their dwelling in residences that gladdened the heart. May all the gods, whom I brought into their cities,|
|35||û-mi-Ša-am ma- h ar iluBel ù iluNabu Š a a-ra-ku ume-ia li-ta-mu-ú lit-taŠ-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-ki-ia ù a-na iluMarduk beli-ia li-iq-bu-ú Ša mKu-ra-aŠ Šarri pa-li- hi-ka u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia mari- Šu||pray daily before Bêl and Nabû for long life for me, and may they speak a gracious word for me and say to Marduk, my lord, "May Cyrus, the king who worships you, and Cambyses, his son,|
|36||da [. . .] ib-Šu-nu lu-ú [. . .] ka-li-Ši-na Š ú-ub-ti ni-ih-tim ú-Še- Ši-ib [. . .] paspase u TU.KIR.HU [. . .]||their [. . .] I permitted all to dwell in peace [. . .]|