An Erect Frame across the Broad Central Desert of Iran
Geographical Location and its Background
Located only a short distance east of Ardestan, this ancient town was an important point on the crossroads of trade routes starting from Sasanid or even earlier times to approximately the 11th century. Today it is a forgotten little town whose narrow streets and flat-roofed houses have changed little in the last hundred years. Located on the edge of the desert, Zavareh has a very arid climate, often with very hot days and cold nights.
The name of Zavareh has caused disputes among the scholars. Zavareh was the brother of Rostam in Shahom zavvar ("pilgrims"), as it was an important site on the old caravan route to Mashhad, the main pilgrimage site of Islamic Iran. Some authorities claim that Zavareh means "the way to the sea'; but it seems really far-fetched, even when we recall that there was once a sea on the site that is today Occupied by the desert.
People of Zavareh are very pious and pay much attention to performing their religious rites. It is even more so because a great number of them are seyeds, allegedly tracing their ancestry from the Islamic prophet. The most important religious ceremonies are held during the first decade of Moharram in handsome hosseiniyehs, the number of which is amazing for this relatively small town.
The main crafts of Zavareh are carpets and copperware; in the past, the local cotton textiles enjoyed special renown.
Zavareh is known to have had an ancient pagan temple that under the Sasanians became a fire altar. The Khosrow Shah Qanat dates from the Parthian period. To the north from the town, the ruins of Sasanid buildings testify to the town's importance during the Sasanid period. According to the legend, these are the re-mains of palaces that were built at the order of Khosrow Anushirvan as gifts to his former classmates.
After the advent of Islam and particularly during the Buyid period, Zavareh became a Shiite center, and at approximately the same time, the seyeds migrated here from Esfahan. In the 11th century, the town had a fortified wall with four gates topped with watchtowers. For a long time, this fortress was occupied by the Ismailites. Zavareh first reeled under crushing blows of Mongol hordes. The Mongols could not put down the resistance of the locals, so they ruined qanats and left the town without water. NaSir al- Din Tusi, the remarkable Iranian scientist loyal to the Mongols, prompted the locals to leave the town. When the enraged Mongols entered the empty town, they almost razed it. During the Safavid reign, Zavareh was firmly established as a Shiite center. The Afghans delivered the second irretrievable blow to the town, which was only partially restored during the Zand and Qajar rules.
Modern Zavareh is interesting for its peculiar architecture typical to desert towns. Its historical fabric includes narrow, winding lanes of residential quarters, the 17th-century derelict bazaar, several ancient icehouses and wells, and an astonishing array of open-air and roofed hosseiniyeh's. But its main places of interest comprise the Congregational Mosque and the Pa Menar Mosque and Minaret.
Yaghut Hamavi says: "Zavare is a small town near Isfahan and near the desert" in the Geographic Dictionary of Iran has been mentioned that "Zavare is a small town in a plain and tropical zone of Ardestan Comes from underground canals, And the products are grain, call und gation, the Makers Wine, weaving carpet, Aband and Ceiling and its ... This city is 976 meters higher than the sea And the weather is hot and dry.
Economy and Population
As we pass through the meanders and twists of the streets in Zavare, one can notice the tall frames and golden branches of the date palms that are raised. As mentioned in the geographical dictionary, the jobs of the majority of people are agriculture, gardening and weaving carpet. The main agricultural products are wheat, oats, corn, cotton, sesame, castor oil, vegetables, pomegranates, figs, dates and pistachios.
The population of the city according to the statistics of 1997 (1375) has been announced about 7710 people of this number 3794 are males and 3915 are females that totally form 2911 families.
Outstanding and Prominent Figures.
In the 4th century, Zavare received many Tabatabai Sayyed and many ancestors of Sayyeds are buried in this city. This area is the center of science, literature and culture and has nurtured and educated many famous personalities ..
The characters such as Fakhredin Ali Ebn Hasan Zavarei, whose book "Tarjomat-ol Khawas", Sayyed Ghiathol-din Gazor, interpreter of the Koran, Sayyed Abolhasan Jelve, philosopher and scientist Moddares, demanding cleric Abu Ali Dehdar Zavarei, wafa Sepehri, Poet, the late Haghiri, contemporary poet and professor Sayyed Mohammad Mohit. Tabatabai, the late contemporary scholar.
Ancient Sites and Places
While visiting the traditional ancient structure of Zavare we confront with historical places such as Bazaar, smaller bazaar, water reservoirs, un / covered Hosseynieh (the place where the martyrdom of Imam Hossein is mourned for), military fortifications, forts, traditional ice chests, domes, chartaghi (buildings with 4 arches), charsofei houses (houses with 4 terraces), and mausoleum of mystics.
This town has houses that are charsofe (houses with 4 terraces), hozkhane (small pool), three parts type, compound type and hasht. Of these houses, we can also include Tabatabai House, Mongolian Boghre, Hashemi Nasab, Shah Maradi and Ahmad Nezam, "Prison Asia Complex and Sarhang Abad Palace", also in this city.
“ Robat shah Abbasi “ on the way from zavare to Marv Abad which was changed into a high school sometimes ago and the caravansaries located on the roule from Ardestan to naiin with the ancientness that refers to Ghajarian era are of the famous caravansams of this temitory .
Shrine of Agha All Abbas is located in suburbs of Zavare and is attributed to Imam Musa Kazem's son (PBUH). Som rooms have been made all around the yard of this shrine and they are private mausoleums .
The design of the dome and the yard of the shrine have been accomplished by "Seyyed Jafar Rashtian ", the painter miniaturist and carpet designer. The porch of the shrine has some plaster moldings with the design of pigeons and peacocks.
"Seyyed-os Sadat" Shrine is also in Zavare, Besides shrines, a number of mausoleums of prominent figures such as "Pir Ala-edin", "Pir Jamali", "Pir Morshed" of Sufism and literary men are located in this region. Meanwhile, the mausoleum of "Seyyed Bahaodin Heydar", Bogheye Sabz (green mausoleum), and Imamzade Yahya (shrine of Imamzade. Yahya) are also located in this city.
"Pamenar" mosque in Zavare is a Seljukian monument and has been decorated with some plaster ornaments. The minaret of this mosque has a Kufic epigraph which refers to 461(lunar calendar) and attributes this building to "Mohammad Ebn-e Ebrahim". It is known that in the pas there was a fire temple instead of this
"Jame’ Mosque" of Zavaro is also a Seljukian monument and its approximate date of manufacturing refers to 530 (lunar calendar) and the founder was a person name." Abu Taher Hossein",
This mosque was founded in 1110 on a "kiosk" plan, after its prototype in neighboring Ardestan. But only some 25 years later, it was converted into the first Iranian four-eivan mosque, thus marking the emergence of the truly Iranian style in mosque building.
This time the Congregational Mosque of Ardestan was copied from the Zavareh mosque and was also turned into a four-eivan structure. In both mosques, the south eivan is the widest and the most sumptuous of all, and the north eivan is wider than those on the east and the west. Completed in 1135, the mosque consisted of the courtyard with four eivans and a very fine sanctuary marked with a brick dome. The brick mihrab, decorated with stucco moldings and an inscription frieze, was added in 1156. The inscription is executed in Kufic and Naskh and recites verses from the Koran. Another ancient mihrab dating from the 14th century is located in the old winter prayer hall located behind the north eivan, There is also a prayer hall in the mosque's basement. It was built in the 19th century by Hajj Mir Mohammad Ali, the local philanthropist. The mosque's principal founder was Abu Taher and its architect was Ostad Mahmud Esfahani, both responsible for the Congregational Mosque of Ardestan. The founder's grave inside the mausoleum known as Gonbad-e Sabz ("The Green Dome") is situated in the town's graveyard. The mosque's historical inscription in angular Kufic script, giving the date of the mosque's construction and the names of its builders, runs around the courtyard starting from the east eivan. It is a unique feature because in other Iranian mosques, such inscriptions are usually reserved for the sanctuary or the prayer hall. To the right of the entrance are the remains of the Seljuk minaret, the height of which now does not exceed 4.5 m. It has an illegible inscription and tile work debris.
Pa Menar Mosque and Minaret
Masjed va Menar-e Pa Menar
This mosque was converted from a Sasanid fire temple during the early Islamic period. Its heyday, however, coincided with the Seljuk rule, when it was one of the most beautiful and unusual mosques of Iran. Its unusual features included six carved mihrabs, each incised in a separate niche along the mosque's qibla wall. Their exquisite plaster decorations dated from three different periods, the latest being created during the Il-Khanid rule. The original inscriptions of the mihrabs were in Kufic script, but in later periods, they were covered with plaster and new inscriptions, this time in Tholth, were engraved. No date is given in the texts of the inscriptions, but the donor is identified as Abu Mohammad ibn Ibrahim, the same person who built the brick minaret of the mosque. The minaret dates from 1069, and is Iran's second oldest minaret after the minaret of the Saveh Mosque. Its Kufic inscription is among the most beautiful inscriptions of the 11th century.