Golpayegan (Persian: Golpāyegān, also Romanized as Golpayegan; also known as Shahr-e Golpāyegān meaning "City of Golpayegan") is a city in and the capital of Golpayegan County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 47,849, in 14,263 families.
Golpayegan is located 186 kilometres (116 mi) northwest of Isfahan and 102 kilometres (63 mi) southeast of Arak, situated at an altitude of 1,830 m.
Golpayegan, land of tulips
Historically, the name of the town has been recorded as Vartpadegān,(ورت پاتگان) Jorfadeghan, (جرفادقان) Darbayagan, Kuhpayegan,(کوه پایگان) and Golbādagān. Golpayegan means fortress of flowers and land of tulips (Persian: سرزمین گلهای سرخ Sarzamin-e golha-ye sorkh).
According to Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, the town of Golpāyegān was built by the daughter of Bahman,Samra, also known as Homāy Bente Bahman in Persian: همای بنت بهمن
Golpayegan minaret with the 18 meter height is called “Mill Golpayegan” which is among the fifth tallest minaret in 5 century (AH) and belongs to the Seljuk period. It is located in Imam Khomeini avenue and in front of Fanoos park. It has been refurbished in 1938-39. The minaret has got two doors and there are some stairs inside the minaret. The lower and upper sides of minaret have been restored and there is a brick inscription in it that is written in kufic script without any date. The text of inscription is the verses from the Holy Quran.
The minaret is about 900 years old and it is standing against natural disasters such as earthquake, wind, rain, coldness and heat and is among the tallest minarets in Iran. It has got two circular staircases with 64 stairs to ascend to the top to the minaret.
It is said that this minaret had been guidance for caravans and they installed lights on the top of it.
Jameh ( Grand ) Mosque of Golpayegan
In the Western Iranian highland town of Golpayegan, the lofty brick dome towering above the roofs announces the Friday Mosque to the visitor approaching through the surrounding river oasis, which lies embedded in the mountain ranges of the Zagros. Upon entering the mosque, the building presents itself as a rather unassuming courtyard complex - except for the dome chamber. This room stands out against the rest of the mosque because of its architectural decoration, with brick patterns and stucco ornament. On this building, two characteristic elements of Islamic art can be observed at a very early stage: Muqarnas in regular rows of cells adorning corner squinches, and inscriptions in square Kufic.
The Friday Mosque of Golpayegan is a building of high architectural standards, which experienced many turns in its history through the past nine centuries. This alone would justify a thorough examination. Besides, the exploration of the mosque can contribute to clarify overarching questions concerning the history of mosque architecture in Iran.
Among the mosques with a Saljuq dome chamber, the Friday Mosque of Golpayegan holds a relatively early position. The date of 508/1114-15, inscribed on the lower frame of the mihrab, was discovered twenty years ago. It puts the dome about twenty years after the first impressive dome chambers in the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, contemporary with the dome chamber in the Friday Mosque of Qazvin, and well before the dome chambers of Barsiyan, Borujerd, and Ardestan, to name the most important examples.
Concerning its position within the structure of the Friday Mosque, the dome chamber of Golpayegan appears clearly separated from the adjacent parts. The vaulted halls surrounding the courtyard, together with the two extant entrance bays, can be dated to the early Qajar period. Likewise, two walls perpendicular to the front of the dome chamber just like lateral walls of an iwan, belong to this building phase, while the hall on the opposite side of the courtyard has been replaced by a modern concrete construction. There is a clear joint between the Saljuq and the Qajar parts of the building.
More important for the older phases of the mosque were elements of stucco decoration, which can partly be ascribed to the Saljuq building phase of the dome chamber. Typical for the period, they contain grid patterns, tendrils and leaves. Stucco plugs from the joints between the bricks were also characteristic. Some elements, however, seem to date from a pre-Saljuq construction. Among them, a small feathered half palmette is similar to elements of the Buyid phase at Ardestan. Clear evidence of such a pre-Saljuq mosque was unearthed in the dome chamber: foundations of a pillar, which was obviously razed to pave the way for the construction of 508/1114-15. While the foundations have a square plan, the pillars themselves seem to have been cylindrical. This is indicated by a considerable number of wedge-shaped bricks which are built into the lower layers of the Saljuq dome chamber, or were used to pave the floor, obviously in secondary use. It can be concluded that the pre-Saljuq Friday Mosque of Golpayegan followed the type of the hypostyle hall. According to the style of stucco fragments, this building can probably be dated to the 4th/10th century. Traces of an even earlier building phase can be seen in the remnants of mud brick and adobe which were visible in the lower layers of the soundings.
Googad Citadel which is located near the city of Golpayegan (in Isfahan province) dates back to about four centuries.
The only written document that has been left from the citadel belongs to about 130 years ago.
This document indicates that half of the citadel was built by a person named Ali Khan who gave his share of the citadel to his wife as dowry.
According to K.domaindlx webstie, Googad Citadel and the city of Golpayegan was located en route Silk Road. This is why the citadel was called Alikhani Citadel for some time. Golpayegan has a minaret which is about 18 meters high and it was used as a guide for passengers in the past.
The citadel was used as a caravansary for businessmen during peace time.
Aqa Mohammad Khan, the Qajar king, has also spent several days in the citadel while he was returning from one of his wars.
The citadel is currently used as a luxury hotel nowadays.
A room currently used as a special suite was designated for kings.
Doves acted as an alarm system for of the citadel so that special openings were considered for the doves to settle in the citadel’s wall and whenever they heard strange sound they also began to make noise.