City Development of Tehran
Until the 1870s, Teheran consisted of the walled "arg" (royal citadel), the sheltered bazaar and "Sharestan" (where the masses lived in three main quarters of "Udlajan", "Chaleh Meydan" and "Sangelaj"). The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. However, the architecture found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. The second major planning exercise in Tehran was under the supervision of Darul-Funun. The map of 1878 contained new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometers imitating the Renaissance cities of Europe.
|Toopkhaneh (Imam )Square in 1911|
In response to the growing social awareness of civil rights, the first parliament of the Persian constitutional revolution on 2 June 1907 passed a law on local governance, known as "Ghanoon-e Baladieh". The second and third articles of the law, "anjoman-e baladieh" or the city council, give a detailed overview of the role of councilors in the city, the membership qualifications, the electoral process and the right to vote.
After the First World War, Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, immediately abandoned the "Ghanoon-e Baladieh" of 1907 and the decentralized and autonomous city councils were replaced by centralist / sectoral approaches to governance and planning.
The changes in the urban fabric began with the road expansion act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. As a result of this action, the traditional texture of the city was decorated with cruciform, intersecting streets that created large roundabouts that were on the large public spaces such as the bazaar or Hussainia.
As an attempt to create a network for the easy movement of goods and vehicles in Tehran, the city walls and gates were demolished in 1937 and replaced by broad streets intersecting the urban fabric. The new map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of the zoning and grid network.
The foundation of the planning organization of Irans in 1948 led to the first socioeconomic development plan, which was to cover 1949 to 1955. These plans have not slowed down not only the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but also the land reforms of 1962, which Shah called the White Revolution. The growth of Tehran was further strengthened.
In order to return the city to the city and solve the problem of "hashyehneshini", the Persian equivalent of marginality, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968. The consortium of Iranian consultants Abdol-Aziz Mirza Farmanfarmaian and the American company Von Victor Gruen Associates identified the city's problems of high density, expanding the new suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment and rural-urban migration. Finally, the whole plan was marginalized by the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the subsequent Iran-Iraq War.