10 ancient Iranian historical sites, before the advent of Islam in Iran
The history of Iran can be divided into two parts: written and unwritten history.
The unpublished part of Iran consists of more than 8000 years of history, which is confirmed by the objects and historical art-works discovered in different parts of Iran(Sialk hills 8000-12000, Lorestan metal objects, Historical objects of Jiroft region,).
But the written and documented part of Iran's history, which has written and existing documents is about 1250 years BC and from the Ilam period and the most important document of this period, is the temple of Choghazenbil in Khuzestan.
The 10 most important works of the pre-Islamic period that introduce this period of Iranian history are:
Iran's List World Heritage sites
An ancient temple and complex in the old Elamites area.between two old towns of Khuzestan province, Susa, and Shushtar. A mud-brick structure that is still standing yet after 3,500 years. The first Iranian ancient work recorded in UNESCO. This temple is founded by the order of Elamite king Untash-Napirisha(1275-1240 BCE) as a religious center. This is the largest and unique ziggurat outside of Mesopotamia and the best preserved of this type of stepped pyramidal monument. This unique monument identifies one of the most prominent and distinctive features of people's culture, beliefs and ritual traditions of one of the oldest indigenous peoples of Iran.
Pasargad the tomb of Cyrus the Great founder the great Achaemenid dynasty and the largest empire of Asia(529 BC).
Pasargadae was the first royal Achaemenid capital in the Pars land, founded on the orders of Cyrus the Great.
Architectural elements in this complex, such as gardens, palaces, and temples represent a part of the Achaemenid royal art and architecture, which has still attracted the attention of the world. Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Covering the eastern Mediterranean and Egypt up to the Hindu River, it is considered the first empire to respect the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.
One of the three Achaemenid capitals used for official ceremonies and especially the New Year's Eve celebrations. It is located 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz, in the province of Fars, Iran. The first remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. It illustrates the Achaemenid architectural style. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.
This royal palace, built on the orders of Darius I, is recognized as the jewel of the Achaemenid (Persian) ensembles in the fields of architecture, urbanism, construction and art, the royal city of Persepolis . have no equivalent and bear a unique testimony to a very ancient civilization.
This unique collection of architecture was built on the orders of Darius I and added to it during the Achaemenid rule and by other kings. Inspired by Mesopotamian models, the Achaemenid kings Darius I (522-486 BCE), his son Xerxes I (486-465 BCE), and his grandson Artaxerxes I (465-424 BCE) built a splendid palatial complex on an immense half-natural, half-artificial terrace.
Bishapur is located 125 kilometers from west Shiraz.
This historic Sassanid city was located on the Pars route to Ilam and along the path leading to the city of the Sassanid Estakhr and the capital of Ctesiphon.
Bishapur was founded by Shapur, the second Sassanid king, to celebrate his victory over the Romans in 260 AD. The name Bishapur derives from Bay-??p?r, which means Lord Shapur.
He was the son of Ardashir (Artaxerxes in Greek), a governor of Persia who deposed the last king Parthe in 228 and proclaimed Shahanshah (king of kings).
The most important architectural feature of this city is the combination of Persian and Roman architecture that has not been seen before in any of the Iranian cities. Before Bishapour built, Almost all main city in Persia/Iran had a circular shape like the old city in Firuzabad or Darab.The city is one of the first examples of architecture with vertical and horizontal streets and the Roman models are also specifically used in the urban design.
The oldest and largest carved wall in the world(8th to 7th centuries B.C.) is 20 meters long and 6 meters high and at an altitude of 87 meters from the ground.Bisotun is located along the old trade route from the Iranian high plateau to Mesopotamia and displays remnants of prehistory to mid-Achaemenid, Sassanid and Ilkhanid periods. The most important part of this rocks is Darius I's victory over his opponents which fully explained with pictures and the writings. It is unique, being the only known monumental text of the Achaemenids to document a specific historical event, that of the restoration of the empire by Darius I the Great. Moreover, Bisotun is an exceptional testimony to the important exchange of human values on the development of monumental art and writing, reflecting the ancient traditions in monumental bas-reliefs.
Shahr-e Sokhta, "Burnt City"
Burnt City "is a cradle of ancient civilization with unknown wonders.
Sistan and Baluchistan is one of the centers of civilization in the east of the Iranian plateau.
"Burnt City" is one of the symbols of the great civilization of the Sistan Plain, this ancient city, is one of the greatest ancient cities of Iran's plateau.
This city laid 56 kilometers from Zabul city in Sistan and Baluchestan province.
It founded in 3200 BC and the people of this city lived in for four periods between 3200 and 1800 BC. Due to fires occurred in two periods between 3200 and 2750 BC, the city is known as the burned city.
The city is one of the rarest ancient cities which women had been responsible for the finances of their families.
The burned city is one of the most advanced cities of its time.
Here are some of these amazing advances:
- The world's first artificial eye: An artificial eye that owned 4800 years ago by a woman from 25 to 30 years old.
- Brain Surgery: A twelve or thirteen-year-old girl, that her skull was surgical 4800 years ago
-5,000-year-old ruler: A ruler made of ebony wood discovered.
- The world's first animation: The archaeologists have found a cup that looks like a goat with a tree on it.
This object has a targeted role with the role it plays so that it shows the goat moves towards the tree.
The artist has been able to design a bow in five moves that feeds the tree and leaves it.
The largest mud brick building in the world belonging to the Sassanid era, which was on the path to the Silk Road.
The area of this citadel is about 180,000 square meters, surrounded by walls ranging from 6 to 7 meters long and 1815 meters long.
This historic citadel consists of several architectural forms including towers, different gates, mosque, market, entrance door, caravanserai, school, bathroom, a zurkhaneh and residential neighborhoods with different houses, a military section including a barracks, stables, a mill, and a commanding house. The origins of Bam date back to the Achaemenid period (6th-4th centuries BC).
Its heyday was from the 7th to the 11th century, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton clothing. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh), sun-dried mud bricks (khesht), and vaulted and domed structures.
Bam and its Cultural Landscape represents an outstanding example of an ancient fortified settlement that developed around the Iranian central plateau and is an exceptional testimony to the development of a trading settlement in the desert environment of the Central Asian region.
Shushtar Aquatic Structures
Shushtar Aquatic Structures, The Glory of Iranian Architectural.
This historical hydraulic system, record as an Iranian masterpiece since the Achaemenids. This architectural structure consists of two channels on the Karun river in order to transport water inside the Shushtar city. These water structures are interconnected collections of bridges, gangways, mills, waterfalls, channels, and water-guiding tunnels that work together. Shushtar aquatic structures during the Sassanid era have been constructed to use water as a stimulus for industrial mills. The collection of Shushtar mills and waterfalls is one of the unique examples used for optimal water use in ancient times.
Takht-e Soleyman has also known as Azar Goshnasp "the Fire of the Warrior Kings", is an archaeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran. It was the largest educational, social and religious center of Iran before Islam. But in 624 AD, it destroyed in the attack of the Roman emperor Heraclius, to Iran. It dates back to 3,000 years ago and is one of the most important historical works of the country which registered as the fourth Iranian work in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Takht-e-Suleiman, is a survivor from Sassanid era, with different sections such as: Azar Gashb's fire temple as one of the most important fire-temples of the Sassanid period, the king fire temple, Ivan Khosrow, Anahita Temple, small fireworks and its gates and walls considered as one of the most important historical monuments of the world.
Takht-e Sulaiman was the main sanctuary and the most important site of Zoroastrianism, the Sassanian state religion.
This early monotheistic faith had an important influence on Islam and Christianity; Similarly, the designs of the Temple of Fire and the Royal Palace, as well as the general layout of the site, have strongly influenced the development of religious architecture in the Islamic era and have become a major architectural reference for other cultures of the world. East and West.
The siraf Port
An ancient city located in the central part of Kangan city in Bushehr province in southern Iran. The port of Siraf was the first Sassanid-Islamic city in Iran to observe the peaceful coexistence of different peoples and nations. Historical evidence confirms that the port city of Bushehr, and particularly the port of Siraf, was the major center of Sassanid-Islamic maritime navigation in the Persian Gulf region, and seamen traveled from this area to other places around the globe and oceans. In ancient times, the Siraf was a Jewish city that the main occupation of its inhabitants was silk trade.